1989'4, p.125
Raynai G. , Stolin V. V.
Psychotherapy in layman perception and in that of psychotherapists

Methodological, conceptual and applied aspects of the problem of cross-cultural assessment of individual differences, based on experimental studies and practical work with managers, students, schoolchildren and athletes, are examined. Standard strategy (algorithm) for the development and validation of equivalent forms of any personality and/or social psychological self-evaluation scale or inventory is described. Selective experimental and normative data obtained in several studies during last 15 years are presented to substantiate the validity of the Russian forms of Spielberger's STAI, Eysensk's EPO, McCrosby's PRCA, Nideffer's TAIS, Martens' SCAT and Crowne and Marlowe's SDS. After discussing procedures to construct and apply valid and reliable equivalent forms of various inventories, some important conceptual aspects relevant to the assessment of individual differences in terms of Hanin's "zones of optimal functioning" are examined and practical implications suggested.