The social psychological aspects of the reforms ongoing in our country are analysed. Traditionally passive stand of the psychological science as far as social problems are concerned and the absence of research on the burning social topics are pointed out. There are two psychological characters the lack of which in many persons determines the psychological resistance to the restructuring; these are active position and cognitive pluralism. Both of these characters are formed in a regular way in the onthogenetic process. The study describes their being influenced by different socio-cultural factors such as specific circumstances of upbringing and education, propaganda stereotypes etc. On the base of this analysis an attempt is made in the study to predict the development of the restructuring process. Putting special attention to possible evil consequences of the ongoing social changes the author considers several specific problems which can be solved only with the help of a series of special psychological studies.