Span, distribution, and stability of attention were studied in 160 2-nd form schoolchildren. On the basis of integral indices two extreme groups were established. In the "non-attentive" children academic efficiency is more closely related with properties of the voluntary attention (first of all - with distributional properties). In the "attentive" children particular properties of attention are selectively and specifically related with the efficiency in different school subjects. Maturity of the attention properties has been found to be a pre-requisite for appearance of other factors (like the ability for control of the motoric activity) determining high academic achievements.