The article is devoted to the 100-th anniversary of the establishing of the first psychophysiological laboratory in Russia at the Kazan university by an outstanding scientist V. M. Bekhterev (october, 1885). A great number of researches carried out in the laboratory paved new ways in neurology, psychiatry and psychology. Bekhterev rejected the method of self-observation, and fought against idealistic psychology looking for materialistic bases in psychiatry and psychology. He argued that in studying abnormal mental activities with the view to achieve complete recovery of the mental health of the patient one must proceed from understanding of the normal mental status. Research performed by Bekhterev and his pupils is a historical landmark in Russian and world science.