The Great Patriotic War (1941 - 1945) submitted the Soviet society, its army and science to a severe test. Having been driven by patriotic motives Soviet psychologists by immediate participation in battles and by their scientific research contributed to the victory over German fascism. Marxist methodology worked out in the Soviet psychology in the years before the war enabled the psychologists to draw creative conclusions out of the war experience, to comprehend the factors determining the outcome of particular combats - all of which was a serious scientific contribution to the development of the martial psychology in those years. Highly developed general psychology turned to be an important basis for solution of a number of theoretical and applied problems of defensive value (determinants of behavior of Soviet people in the battlefield, nature and conditions of their heroic behavior, prevention of fear and panic, accelerated training of military personnel, methods of camouflage and of reconnaissance, help to wounded, unmasking of the unhuman nature of fascism, etc.). Best psychologists of the time participated in research and in applied efforts. At present Soviet martial psychologists still take active part in the strengthening of the fighting and defensive capacity of the Soviet armed forces.