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Heroism, terrorism and social violence: notes in political psychology
Behavioral and psychological difference between the terrorists
of the 1990–2010s and the ones of the 1950–1980s
reflects an overall trend towards increasingly primitive
political thinking. The structure and logic of religious
motivations and the literal faith in the afterlife rewards
make the terrorists’ activities more cruel and destructive
compared to the ones of the secular “revolutionary romanticists”.
The author’s conclusions are not only on the
literary sources but also his personal observations of many
years and his practical experience with the politicians of
Keywords: heroism, terrorism, violence, Verkko law, techno-humanitarian balance, religion, ideology, confrontation, civilization, future.
Position of the subject of learning: personal and cognitive factors
The paper looks at notions of personality, subject, subjectness, discussing co-relation of the phenomena and explaining the notion of the subject of learning , describing its structure and the content of each component. Studies of the position of the subject of learning conducted by the Laboratory of psychology of learning at the Psychological Institute on the material of a number of school subjects (Russian, history, physics) suggest that the psychological context for the development of the position is broader than a simple combination of conditions for a school student’s cognitive activity. This position may be affected by existing and/or developing personality formations and a student’s personal qualities. The author explains the difference between personality formations and personality qualities and puts forward a hypothesis of possible positive and negative influence of personal factors on the nature of the position of the subject of learning. The most important personality formations are the I-concept which includes the dominant learning motivation; the type of instructional orientation; the nature of conscious selfesteem; reflexion of the process and outcome of cognitive activity, level of self-regulation, coping strategies and defense reactions. Personal qualities, essential for development of the position of the subject of learning, include conformity/nonconformity, which reflect the level of the subject’s inner independence; intellectual activity/passivity; responsibility, linked to the student’s orientation towards social assessment of outcomes of his cognitive activity; the level of situational and/or personal anxiety. The connection between the position of the subject of learning as a psychological system and the student’s personality characteristics has not yet been studied in pedagogical psychology.
Key words: personality, personality formations, personal qualities, cognitive activity, position of the subject of learning.
Developmental characteristics of experiencing conflicts of values
A.V. Vizgina, M.A. Jereliyevskaya
The paper discusses an empirical study of developmental characteristics of experiencing conflicts of values caused by expressed disagreement between subjective accessibility of a value and its importance. The study aimed to discover manifestations of value conflicts in different life periods and describe evolution of emotions, behavioral reactions and defense strategies. The methods used for identifying value conflicts and attitude to realizing problem values were “The level of correlation of value and accessibility in different life spheres” and “Seven States” developed by E.B. Fantalova.
Rosenzweig picture-frustration study was used to discover ways of coping with difficulties in the process of realizing a value. The study spanned four age groups: youth, early adulthood, middle adulthood and mature adulthood. With the help of factor analysis based on a matrix of correlations between indices of the four groups the authors obtained factor spaces for each age group reflecting the range of patterns of attitudes to realization of problem values and connected emotions. It was discovered that each age group is characterized by specificity of experiencing values and attitudes to their realization connected with variations of links between active persistent and passive helpless patterns; orientation towards meaningful values which are hard to achieve and which are easily accessible, but useless; use of different defense strategies for coping with value conflicts. It was demonstrated that if the active persistent strategy prevails in all ages except youth, tendency towards active persistent achievement of values which are hard to achieve prevails in young age (the assimilative tendency). Tendency towards accommodation increases by middle and elderly age which manifests itself in orientation towards accessible values in middle adulthood and use of defense strategies in middle and mature adulthood. Alongside this tendency activity and persistence in achieving difficult values also increase in maturity.
Key words: value, value conflict, age characteristics, defense strategies, assimilative tendency, accommodative tendency.
Executive functions and mathematical achievements by students with mild intellectual disabilities
M. Japundza-Milisavljevic, A. Djuric-Zdravkovic
The aim of the study is the establishment of the respective contributions of inhibitions, updating and shifting as components of executive functions when explaining the existing variance in the solutions to numerical, textual and problem based mathematical tasks, put forth by students with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). The study sample comprises 103 students with MID, between 10 and 16 years of age (AS = 13,05; SD = 1,96), of both sexes (48,5 % boys and 51,5 % girls). The estimation of inhibitions, updating and shifting was performed using the “Stroop” test, the “Stop Signal” test, “Letter memorization” test and the “Keep – Track, Plus / Minus and Number / Letter” tests. With the aim of evaluating the extent to which the mathematical concepts have been adopted, the Woodcock–Johnson III Test of Achievement NU (WJ-III ACH) was applied. The results show that the estimated aspects of executive functions have a meaningful predictive capacity when it comes to the understanding of numerical, mathematical tasks (R2 = 0,603), textual arithmetic tasks (R2 = 0,642) and problem based mathematical tasks (R2 = 0,715). The capacity for the inhibition of the disctractor (p = 0,00) showed itself as the strongest predictor in the category of numerical tasks while in the categories of textual arithmetic and problem based tasks, the strongest predictor was the updating working memory (p = 0,00).
Key words: mathematical tasks, inhibition, updating, shifting, mild intellectual disabilities.
The category of the chronotope in psychology
T.D. Martsinkovskaya, E.Yu. Balashova
Various variants of the category of chronotope are considered, the content of this category in biology, philology and psychology is revealed. The connection of approaches to the analysis of the interrelation of space and time in the concepts of Vernadsky, Ukhtomsky and Bernstein, aimed at analyzing the integral response of the organism to the effects of the external environment is shown. The significance for psychology of the approach to the category of chronotope in the concept of Bakhtin is revealed. The chronotope gives the possibility to show the reflection in the literature the world’s picture of a certain historical epoch and describe the transition to a multi-valued picture of the world in which the image of a man stands out in all its complexity and inconsistency. It is shown that Ukhtomsky’s complex approach to heterochrony is correlated with the complex structure of the psychological chronotope, in which three parameters of space as well as three parameters of time are distinguished in the objective and subjective reality of people. Heterochrony is especially important for neuropsychology. Considering the chronotope in the context of brain work, scientists discovered the facts of heterochrony, heterotopy and hetero- dynamicity of development, starting from the fact that mental functions begin to develop at different times and are formed at different speeds and in different areas of the brain. Spatial-temporal determination of ontogeny is important for the differentiation of normal and abnormal development, for determining the type and nature of mental dysontogenesis, for psychosomatic studies. This makes it possible to talk about the cerebral substratum of the chronotope as a spatial-temporal factor of the psyche, which, undoubtedly, requires further research. In the psychology of personality, the chronotope gives the possibility of a holistic approach to analysis of person in the changing reality of space-time, which is extremely important for studying the processes of socialization and the identity formation in transitive reality. In conclusion states the adequacy of using the concept of “psychological chronotope” as a construct that connects different approaches and developmental spheres in a modern changing society.
Key words: chronotope, space, time, psychology.
Age dynamics and the content of the attachment to home
The role of the home environment as the important life context of personal development is discussed. The concept home attachment is introduced. The study of the age-related dynamics and content specificity of the phenomenon is described. The total sample consisted of 330 people from 12 to 72 years (Mage = 36,7; SDage = 13,2); the sample was divided into 4 different age groups: adolescence, youth, adulthood and late adulthood. The author analyzed the data obtained using standardized “Home Attachment Scale” (Reznichenko, Nartova-Bochaver, Kuznetsova, 2016) and “The Relevance of the home environment Questionnaire” (Nartova-Bochaver et al., 2016), as well as the personal data questionnaire. It was shown that weak home attachment is more typical for adolescents, while strong home attachment is most often experienced by late adults. In different ages home attachment is supported by different affordances (qualities) of the home environment: in adolescence and youth – by ergonomics and the possibility of self-presentation through living space, in adulthood – by environmental support, and in late adulthood home attachment is supported by management and plasticity of the home environment. The dwelling conditions also affect the home attachment, especially dwelling ownership, presence of personal space, as well as duration of living at home. The implications and limitations of the study are considered.
Key words: home attachment, developmental tasks, relevant qualities of the home environment, dynamics, dwelling conditions.
The scientific component of psychological texts published in the social network “Vkontakte”
Ya.A. Ledovaya, P.V. Panicheva, À.G. Prichislenko, N.A. Butakov
The past few years have witnessed an increase of, on one
hand, interest in popularized scientific knowledge, on the
other hand, the number of people who believe in homeopathy
and are wary of genetically modified products. It indicates a need for popularizing scientific knowledge
including information about scientific psychology and
scientifically developed practical methods which must
be conveyed to the public at large, to those who take
great interest in psychology, but look for information in
the mass media rather than at school or university. In the
last decade the social networks have become an everyday
source of information for many people, especially young,
and the quality of information about psychology being
spread through the networks is of considerable interest to
Key words: science, psychology, social networks, crawler, lexical markers, word frequency.
Preparation of the XVI European psychological congress in Moscow: traditions and prospects
Yu.P. Zinchenko, A.V. Leibina, A.N. Veraxa, S.V. Leonov
The paper describes development of co-operation between the Russian Psychological Society and the European Federation of Psychological Associations (EFPA) focusing on its principal scientific forum – the European psychological congress, its history, goals and objectives, themes and the format. Special attention is paid to the XVI European psychological congress to be held in Moscow in 2019 for the first time in history. The authors do not only explain the logic of preparation and realization of an event of such a scale, but also give each reader a chance to become part of Russian psychological history by taking part in the preparation of the congress.
Key words: European Federation of Psychological Associations, European psychological congress, Russian Psychological Society.
On cartesianism and spinozism in contemporary psychology: an opinion from A.N. Leontiev’s school
The article is a response to the articles by N.I. Chuprikova (Voprosy psychologii. 2016. N 6) and I.A. Mironenko (Voprosy psychologii. 2017. N 1) which discussed prospects for applying B. Spinoza’s ideas to help solve a number of fundamental problems of psychology, specifically, the psychophysical and the psychophysiological. The author argues that despite N.I. Chuprikova’s declarations on possibility and even necessity of resorting to B. Spinoza’s ideas, the solution she suggests has nothing to do with true spinozism, but is based on R. Descartes’ and T. Gobbs’ ideas. I.A. Mironenko, while criticizing the “reductionism” of N.I. Chuprikova’s approach, does not suggest anything that would be dramatically new or different. Noting correctly that psychology and physiology have different subjects, I.A. Mironenko, on the basis of L.M. Vekker’s ideas, believes that interaction of the organism and the environment is the material substrate of the mental, but she defines it as “stimulus – reaction” interaction. She also mentions “spontaneous activity” of the mental which, however, is not properly explained. However, psychology knows an attempt to understand the nature of the mental not as a function of the brain or a system of analyzers, but as a function of a subject’s activity in an object world. The attempt was made by A.N. Leontiev and his school which the author of the article considers herself to be a part of. The idea is based on B. Spinoza’s conception of thinking as an attribute of an acting, and thus thinking, whole and unique substance. In A.N. Leontiev’s school activity (practical above all) is treated as a substance of the mental and the latter – as an attribute of the given substance (a functional organ of activity in contemporary language). Therefore in trying to explain the nature of the mental it is necessary to adhere to the principle ‘from life (activity) to the brain, not vice versa.
Keywords: psychophysical problem, psychophysiological problem, mind, activity, philosophical foundations of psychology, B. Spinoza, R. Descartes, T. Gobbs, A.N. Leontiev’s school.
Progress in the times of crisis
The article addresses controversial issues raised in papers by P.A. Myasoyed, A.M. Dvoinin, A.V. Yurevich and others published in the journal “Voprosy psychologii”. The author points out difficulties in scientific communication, analyzes problems of practical psychology, corelation of academic and practical psychology stating that what we are witnessing is not a conflict of the scientific and the practical paradigms in psychology, but another clash between the natural scientific and the hermeneutic paradigms. The author believes that the crisis should not be regarded as a negative phenomenon, but as a complex one with a multilevel organization. The first thing that requires revision is definition of the subject of psychology because insufficient integration of psychological science, a rift between academic and practical psychology and the crisis itself could be traced to inadequate understanding of the subject of psychology.
Key words: science, crisis, psychology, subject of psychology, practice, academic psychology.
Potential of extrafoveal perception of geometric figures
A.N. Krichevetz, A.Yu. Swartz, D.V. Chumachenko, A.A. Dreniova
The article is dedicated to the investigation of eyemovements and fixations role in the solution of visua lly presented mathematical tasks on geometric concepts recognition. According to the first experiment simple geometric shapes (a circle, a triangle, a square, a cross) could be recognized in extrafoveal region without any eye-movements or fixations, which would bring them to fovea and in a few trails most of the adults chose the strategy without eye-movements. We assume that under these and similar conditions the fixation on a target shape is needed in order to confirm the hypothesis that have emerged during the extrafoveal perception. Considering this study as a basic one, we explore the borders of extrafovel recognition abilities and we aim to find the target concepts and the distractors that could not be processed extrafoveally and the recognition task would require foveal perception. The novelty of the research is determined by conceptual definition of the target shape, and thus the cognitive processes differ from a classical visual search task since the geometric shapes need to be conceptually recognized instead of comparison with perceptually given shape. The second experiment was conducted in order to explore which factors impeded the extrafoveal recognition of shapes. We considered the number of the fixation that fixated the target shape for the first time as a measure of extrafoveal processes. In some cases there were no fixations at all, in the other cases the extrafoveal processes are demonstrated in the fact that the first saccade was already directed at the target shape. The amount of fixations and response time increased in case of the unusual positions of the geometric shapes and in case of similarity between the target shape and the distractors. We also distinguished the diversity of the individual strategies; their possible determinacy by personal characteristics of the participants and by their attitudes towards the task needs further exploration.
Key words: extrafoveal perception, recognition, mathematical concepts, eye-tracking, perception of geometric shapes.
The mechanism of indirect instruction in formation of notions
À.V. Vartanov, E.V. Matviyenko
The paper describes the phenomenon of indirect instruction in the process of forming artificial notions on material of varying complexity and modality, demonstrating that even in a simple associative experiment a notion is formed on the basis of identifying general rules of co-organization of a multitude of objects, signs and nominations which leads to other signs and denominations being incorporated, though they have never occurred in associative experiments before. A number of specially prepared and specifically arranged groups of experimental stimuli helped to discover a mechanism of formation of artificial notions which consists in establishing, by trial and error, of a general co-relation of two local systems of indicators reflecting multitudes of objects that are either signs or nominations. The shape of individual learning curves for the pairs ‘the sign – the signified’ is similar for those that occurred in the associative experiment and for those that did not; the latter signs acquire a meaning indirectly, through general conformity. At the same time the non-associated pairs are not identified in the process of formation, their presence in the control series does not cause any difficulty and is not realized by the subject. The conformity is achieved by means of shifting the coordinates of one indicator space with respect to the other. As a result errors in trials on separate pairs of stimuli are not accidental, their meaning and direction correlate directly with the angle of the space shift in the trial. The latter confirms the suggested pattern of integration of two local analyzers (built from neuron-like elements) on the basis of a motor code. These regularities have been observed for both simple single parameter sets presented visually (on the example of forming artificial associations between a multitude of shades of equally bright and equally saturated colors and the shape of flat blackand- white figures that varied from the triangle to the circle), and complex, varying in three subjective parameters, sets of stimuli, presented in two modalities on the example of forming artificial auditory and visual associations between color (varying in shade, brightness and saturation) and speech-like sounds.
Keywords: formation of notions, indirect instruction, consciousness.
Methods of diagnosing alexithymia in children with sensory disorders
I.S. Karaush, I.Ye. Kupriyanova
Alexithymia, a psychological phenomenon that occurs in children with health problems has not been sufficiently researched. The paper focuses on the problem of diagnosing alexithymia and development of emotional maturity in children with heavily impaired listening and sight. A complex clinical psychological study of 368 students of special (correctional) schools aged 7–18 (hard-of-hearing, deaf, visually impaired children) revealed a high percentage of speech disorders (94,6 % in hard-of-hearing and deaf children, 20,3 % in visually impaired children) and mental development disorders (64 % in hard-ofhearing and deaf children, 20,3 % in visually impaired children).
The paper describes clinical manifestations of alexithymia. The long used Toronto alexithymia scale TAC- 20 was adapted for adolescents with sensory disorders accompanied by deviations in mental development. The scale is easy for adolescents with intellectual disorders, does not require long visual effort and can be recommended for psychological and clinical studies in correctional schools. 271 students aged 10–18 were exa mined with the help of the scale, which helped to identify three groups: “the norm”, “risk of alexithymia” and “alexithymia”. Alexithymia was much more frequently (p = 0,012) diagnosed in children with impaired hearing (42 %) than in visually impaired children (29 %). 34 % of students with sensory disorders were at risk.
The authors also discuss meaningful factors discriminating the groups, demonstrating “contribution” of mental disorders, pathological upbringing, and high anxiety levels to development of alexithymia. A combination of a sensory defect and a mental disorder considerably (p = 0,00001) increases probability of alexithymia. Family upbringing and relations within the family determine the social component of alexithymia of the “social instruction” type. Alexithymia is viewed as an equivalent of psychological defense which removes affect into the unconscious, limiting mental reactions and replacing them with less traumatic physiological responses. Alexithymic features of the group examined aggravate infantilism and problems of social interaction.
The paper describes areas of therapeutic and correctional work with children with sensory disorders, their parents and teachers.
Key words: alexithymia, hard-of-hearing and deaf children, visually impaired children, anxiety.