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Objective implicit measurement procedures: species features, advantages, mechanisms, application areas
The article is dedicated to reviewing a promising experimental and psychodiagnostic method – objective implicit measurement techniques. They are based on registering reaction time and analyzing errors under different combinations of stimulation in suboptimal task performance conditions. This method emerged from modern cognitive research and since the last quarter of the 20th century has been developing in the field of studying social interactions (social attitudes, stereotypes, relationships) using computer technology. By a number of significant features, the method belongs to the category of objective psychodiagnostic procedures. Currently, there are more than twenty modifications, the most common of which are the Implicit Association Test and procedures for semantic, affective, and evaluative priming. By 2015, the number of English-language publications exceeded 5000, and the key publication by Greenwald, McGhee & Schwartz, published in 1998, has been cited over 16 thousand times. Unlike explicit procedures (questionnaires, surveys), objective implicit measurement techniques are better protected from limitations of individual reflective ability and the influence of the insincerity of the subject. Meta-analytic studies indicate a slight overlap in the prognostic validity of implicit and explicit methods. The former are aimed at habitual forms of automatic object categorization that mediate decision-making and subject behavior, making them an indispensable tool for studying attitudes under conditions of intentional and unintentional distortion of results by the subject. These techniques are predominantly addressed to the implicit structures of the subject’s experience, making them a valuable tool for psychodiagnostics in the field of clinical psychology, as well as for predicting behavior (addictive and suicidal behavior, intergroup emotional attitudes, weapon use, propensity for violence, etc.).
Keywords: the objective implicit measurement techniques, implicit measures, Implicit Association Test, affective priming, evaluative priming, automated mental processes, implicit determinants of behavior.
Neuropsychology of memory as an educational discipline: creating a discourse
Korsakova N.K., Balashova E.Yu.
The article discusses various aspects of the Russian neuropsychology of memory as an educational discipline. The structure and sequence of presentation of the material, the main problems of neuropsychology of memory are described in detail. The article analyzes the history of the formation of this field of knowledge, the struggle of ideas and approaches to the study of memory in norm and pathology, the development of diagnostic and experimental methods of memory research. The possibilities of understanding memory as a mental function, as a mental activity and as a special chronotope unfolding in time and space of the brain and mentality are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the works of A.R. Luria, his students and colleagues devoted to various variants of memory disorders in local brain lesions. These studies required the creation of a special complex of neuropsychological diagnostic techniques that made it possible to study the memorization and reproduction of material of various modalities and varying degrees of semantic organization in the presence or absence of interfering activity. They made it possible to identify such mechanisms of mnestic disorders as the pathological inhibition of memory traces by interfering influences, violations of the selective actualization of the material (both memorized during the examination and strengthened in past experience), weakness of consolidation of traces. In addition, it was possible to establish a hierarchy of these mechanisms in different neuropsychological syndromes. Thanks to the comprehension and generalization of a huge array of clinical and experimental data at the school of A.R. Luria, an original classification of memory disorders was created, including modal-nonspecific and modal-specific disorders, as well as memory disorders as a mnestic activity; a connection between these disorders and dysfunctions of three structural and functional blocks of the brain.
Key words: memory, norm, pathology, neuropsychology, mechanisms of forgetting, chronotope.
Age dynamics of text comprehension in adolescents aged 11–16 in the process of semantic reading from screen and from paper
Mironova K.V. , Borisenko N.A., Shishkova S.V.
The results of a comparative study of the age dynamics of text comprehension by schoolchildren aged 11–16 in the process of semantic reading from paper and from screens are presented. The study involved 712 students in grades V–IX of six Russian secondary schools. In the course of the ascertaining experiment, the participants filled out a questionnaire regarding reading from screens and from paper, and completed written diagnostic tasks on narrative text comprehension. As the results of the survey showed, all students – regardless of their age – do not have a pronounced preference for paper or digital reading format, although fifth-graders more often than students from other grades chose the “reading from paper” option. A systematic positive dynamics was revealed in the level of text comprehension when moving to higher grades – from grade V to grade IX (p ?0.001). However, in each age group a superficial understanding of the text prevails, as evidenced by the fact that problems with the definition and formulation of the concept of the text (the main indicator of comprehension) in grades V–VI are experienced by 80.6 % of the students, in grades VII–VIII – by 73.3 %, in grade IX – by 57.3 %. Adolescents coped significantly better with tasks on factual textual information than on conceptual information (p ?0.001). On the whole, the differences between those who read from the screens and from paper were insignificant (p > 0.05). The only significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in grades V–VI: many students extracted factual information better when working with electronic text. The data obtained allow us to conclude that, although modern teenagers are quite successfully adapting to the two reading formats, most of them have serious problems in reading literacy, related to both traditional paper and digital reading. This, in turn, has an inevitable negative effect on educational and cognitive activities during secondary and tertiary education.
Key words: age dynamics, comprehension, narrative text, teenagers, digital reading, paper reading.
Deficiencies in psychological competence in professional and pedagogical sphere
The theoretical and methodological foundations of studying the deficits of psychological competence in the professional pedagogical sphere as factors of unpreparedness for the psychological support of the pedagogical process are revealed. The possibility of a subject-activity approach to identifying deficits in the psychological competence of teachers is determined from the point of view of including in the analysis, on the one hand, psychological self-efficacy in various areas of pedagogical activity, and on the other hand, normative psychological criteria for assessing the professionally significant qualities of a teacher. Based on the study of self-assessment of the psychological competence of teachers in the structure of professional readiness, three types of scarce resources in various areas of professional activity are identified, associated with a lack or incomplete use of professionally significant psychological qualities and skills. Organizational and activity deficits are characterized by a lack of functional psychological skills, common ideas about the normatively specified content of psychological and pedagogical competence in the context of inclusive education, professional self-presentation and designing the development of one’s own psychological competence. Cognitive deficits are associated with the scientific inadequacy of the system of concepts in the field of practical psychology of education, underestimation of the importance of the psychology of education and personality development in the organization of the pedagogical process. Motivational and semantic deficits include a lack of humanistic orientation, disinterest in pedagogical work, associated with the objective need to establish dialogic relations. Two opposite types of deficient psychological competence of teachers are distinguished: conformal and manipulative. These types differ in the ratio of available resources: in the conformal type, the lack of critical thinking in the field of cognition of psychological patterns is compensated by stable psychological skills, the reliability of using psychological technologies, and prosocial attitudes; in the manipulative type, the egocentric orientation of activity and deviations from the norms of using psychological technologies are combined with a willingness to take into account psychological factors when solving pedagogical problems. The severity of these types of deficit competence depends on the subject content of the tasks solved by the teacher, the level and adequacy of psychological self-efficacy.
Key words: pedagogical activity, psychological competence of a teacher, professional readiness, professional and personal resources, professional deficit, self-efficacy.
Marital and sibling relationships in families rasing a child with speñial needs of psychophysical development
The article deals with the problem of changes occurring in the family in response to the birth of a child with special needs. Particular attention is paid to the reaction from the marital subsystem. Differences from the usual course of maternal and paternal reactions are emphasized, leading to certain types of family deformation. It is suggested that the nature of the relationship of a normotypical child to a sibling with developmental disabilities may be associated with the parameters of the parents’ marital well-being. The data of a study conducted on a sample of families with a child with disorders of the musculoskeletal system and a normo-typical child are presented. The results of the study indicate that the purely emotional component of the relationship, presented as an internal experience of attraction to the object or rejection of it, remains independent. The connection between the characteristics of the marital and sibling subsystems is found at the level of manifested relationships: voiced attitudes and behavioral reactions. It is concluded that the nature of relations in the marital subsystem sets the tone for communication in the sibling subsystem as well. With cohesion and consistency between spouses, regardless of the presence of affection between them, normotypical children tend to show goodwill and care for siblings with developmental disabilities, it does not matter whether this attitude is sincere. According to the method of organizing interaction within the marital subsystem, the following types of organization of the family structure are distinguished, raising a child with special needs and a normotypical child: cohesive, flexible and mismatched. Their characteristics are described in the case of low or high emotional attractiveness of the spouse. The results obtained can be used in the work of psychologists and social workers with families raising children with special needs and normotypical children who have problems in relationships with each other.
Key words: family, marriage, siblings, children with special needs.
Empirical development of gender personality type
Titova O.I., Poznyakov V.P.
The article is devoted to the development of a theoretical model of the gender type of personality and its empirical verification. With the help of discriminant analysis, it was determined by which gender attitudes the distinguished types most significantly differ from each other, and their characteristics were given. The sample consisted of 456 Russian-speaking respondents (44.1 % of men, 55.7 % of women, 0.2 % classified themselves as the “third” gender) aged 18 to 70 years. The author’s questionnaire for studying gender attitudes was used, which is based on the understanding of masculinity and femininity proposed by G. Hofstede. When constructing a theoretical model, the results of confirmatory factor analysis (SPSS Amos 26.0) were considered. Theoretically and empirically, gender personality types were determined as follows: patriarchal-masculine (33.6 %), patriarchal-egalitarian (23.2 %), matriarchal-masculine (19.7 %), matriarchal-egalitarian (23.5 %). It has been proven that representatives of gender types differ in their attitudes regarding family life, the manifestation of emotions, feelings, care and ambitions in men and women, as well as the admissibility of women’s participation in politics. It has been established that the last of the indicated attitudes most strongly determines the gender type of personality. The combination and severity of the factors “Social status of women” and “Similarities between men and women” in the system of gender attitudes form the gender type of personality. The proposed model can be used as part of psychological counseling to determine the gender type of the personality of the interacting subjects and to assess the consistency / inconsistency of their mutual attitudes.
Key words: gender, gender attitudes, gender personality type: patriarchal-masculine, patriarchal-egalitarian, matriarchal-masculine, matriarchal-egalitarian, model.
Which toys do preschoolers need? Empirical evidence and theoretical basis for the toys’ developmental potential evaluation
Sukhikh V., Veraksa N.Å., Gavrilova M.N.
The article aimed to analyze theoretical approaches and empirical data on the role of toys in development of preschool children. The toy market has been rapidly evolving, certain toys become trendy, toys also surround children both at home and in child care environment. Exceptional position now is taken by so-called “smart” toys, which are commercially represented as necessary for the development and education of preschoolers. However, empirical data on which toys are developmental for specific age is lacking. Also, there is no unified theoretical framework for psychological examination of toys that is aimed to evaluate the developmental potential of toys. Here we consider four approaches to understanding the role of toys: psychodynamic approach, Montessori’s approach, “edutainment” with the use of modern interactive toys and cultural-historical approach. Description of the approaches is supported by empirical data with the focus on the potentially developing characteristics of the toys introduced within each approach. Cultural-historical approach is shown to represent the most holistic theoretical foundation for analyzing the developing potential of children’s toys.
Key words: toys, preschool age, development, cultural-historical approach, transitional object, Montessori toys, smart toys.
Hedonic potential of negative memories: The impact of cognitive strategies and a plot
Nourkova V.V., Wu Sh., Korneev A.A.
This study aimed to clarify previously detected spontaneous mood-repair by negative autobiographical memories (AM). To achieve this, we took into account self-reported cognitive emotion regulation strategies and varying of negative and positive components in the plot of memories. Since the role of negative AMs is deemed to be limited to taking lessons, this study was designed to examine whether negative AMs serve to boost one’s mood by employing the mechanism of the “retrospective downward autobiographical comparison” between now and then. It was assumed that similar to the phenomena of the “downward social comparison” in social psychology, which occurs when a person compares oneself to someone in a worse situation, the procedure of the “retrospective downward autobiographical comparison” may induce hedonic effect. Emotional states of 547 participants were assessed before and after retrieval of negative AMs under either redemption or double contamination scripts using the implicit test differentiating positive and negative components of mood. In general, negative AMs with redemptive plot increased mood, while negative AMs with double contaminative plot decreased mood. Contrary to our hypothesis, we didn’t reveal the influence of self-reported cognitive emotion regulation strategy of “putting into perspective” on facilitation of mood-repair by negative AMs. However, a significant minority of participants improved their moods after retrieval AMs with double contaminative plot. Notably, these participants scored the highest on cognitive emotion regulation strategy of “acceptance”. In contrast, the lowest scores on “acceptance” were associated with the maximum in emotion decrease. These results highlight the importance of further investigation of the factors supporting involvement of negative AMs into emotion regulation.
Key words: autobiographical memory, cognitive emotion regulation strategies, functions of autobiographical memories, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test.
Workshop on reasoning: the game “Gifts” for reflexive reasoning with non-transitive interaction of participants
A methodology has been developed to study the relationship between people’s goals, their trust and awareness. The methodology is based on the game “Gifts” built on the idea of the non-transitive game “Battleship”, which is also non-transitive. In the game, participants can communicate with other participants at any time without any restrictions, such as sharing information, however, there are actions that participants in the game can only perform in a strict turnbased mode. In the general case, the awareness of players in the game is not symmetrical but is initially distributed as follows: each player has some information available only to him and his neighbor on the left. The task of the players is to guess the unknown information of their neighbors on the right. The game ends when all the information of one of the players is guessed, while the payoff of each is equal to the amount of information guessed by him. The preliminary results are as follows. All participants used the opportunity to prompt (but some asked if it was mandatory to use it). Some reported not specific numbers, but their limits, reducing uncertainty, but not eliminating it. Some players agreed to report an increasing number of hints at each step. When close to the end of the game, some players told the truth in the hope that the opponents would think that it was a lie (but the opponent guessed the trick or simply believed and thereby ruined the plan). Some formed coalitions against the victorious. Some changed coalitions (including to the detriment of the previous coalition) to personally get at least the second largest gain, instead of the seemingly inevitable smallest. In a series of several games, there was no uniform distribution of the average payoff. There were clear stable leaders and clear stable losers in the game. The best of the winners did not reveal their strategies and kept them secret. In general, the players actively and actively participated in the game and showed positive emotions.
Keywords: reasoning, reflection, trust, awareness, workshop, game with multifactorial interactions.
Primary approbation of the method “Attitudes to Moral Decision-making Young Sport Questionnaire” on a Russian sample of athletes
Kislyakov P.A., Belov M.S., Silaeva O.A.
Sports activity is considered an important means not only for physical development and improvement, health promotion and recreation, but also for socialization. Due to the large number of antisocial (unsportsmanlike) behavior observed in various sports and, as a result, frequent discussions about the moral development of an athlete, the topic of morality attracts special attention from sports ethics, psychology and pedagogy. A review of foreign studies aimed at studying the moral consciousness of athletes using psychodiagnostic methods is presented. In the field of Russian sports, there is no such diagnostic toolkit. In this connection, the main goal of the work was to test on the Russian sample the methodology “Attitudes to Moral Decision-making Young Sport Questionnaire” (AMDYSQ), developed by British researchers M. Lee and colleagues in 2007 and widely used in the world. The questionnaire consists of 20 items and includes three scales: “Rejection of deceit”, “Orientation on an honest victory”, “Rejection of aggressive behavior”. Approbation of the Russian version of the questionnaire was carried out on a sample of 158 athletes aged 15 to 30 years. The results of testing the Russian-language version of the questionnaire confirmed the three-factor structure, reliability and consistency. In addition, it was found that task-oriented athletes (acquisition of new skills and sports improvement) are more willing to make moral decisions in sports. For those athletes who care about ego orientation (the desire to show superiority over the opponent), the level of development of moral consciousness can be characterized as low. It has been confirmed that athletes in team sports, as well as athletes with more sports experience, demonstrate lower scores on scales and methods in general. The questionnaire can be used for research and diagnostic purposes.
Key words: moral decisions in sports, sports motivation, sports behavior, prosocial norms.
Epigenetic features of children with different institutionalization
Nikolaeva E.I., Dydenkova E.A.
The epigenetic features – the presence of specific changes, manifested in a change in the state of a gene (for example, activation or deactivation), which are a consequence of specific conditions for the development of a child during a critical period of ontogenesis. The review is devoted to describing the characteristics of children due to institutionalization – their stay outside the family in various state institutions in the early period of development. The studies conducted on children with such experience are compared with studies carried out on animals in special experimental situations in which the characteristics of maternal care vary. The most common changes in the state of genes are described, due to their activation and deactivation as a result of methylation and demethylation, depending on the social conditions in which the child develops. It has been shown that these phenomena are observed to the greatest extent in children with experience of institutionalization, in the genes responsible for the development of the child’s brain, the genes responsible for responding to stress, and the genes associated with the activity of the immune system. Children with experience of institutionalization have shorter telomeres (terminals of chromosomes) than children without such experience. It is known that the length of telomeres determines the state of health of the child. For psychologists, some possible approaches are proposed in working with children who have experience of institutionalization.
Key words: institutionalization, adoption, maternal care, methylation, epigenetics.