| || |
New approaches in studies of creative thinking: From phenomenology of insight to objective methods and neuronetwork models
Velichkovsky B.M., Knyazev G.G., Valueva E.A., Ushakov D.V.
The study of creative thinking is a pivotal task of psychology and that of then humanities in general. The incubation phenomenon – a preparation to problem solving during a period of relative rest, with no signs of purposeful efforts to resolve the task – is known to scientists for decades. No doubt, some critically important for problem solving (first of all, insightful, as opposed to analytical problem solving) processes must take place during this time. Although a considerable number of studies have been conducted and plausible hypotheses have been formulated, the understanding of this phenomenon still remains far from being satisfying. In this review, a possible association of the incubation phenomenon with activity of the so-called “resting state networks” (RSN) will be scrutinized. The discovery of RSNs is considered a breakthrough in neuroscience of the 21st century, Three most important RSNs are the default mode network (DMN), the central executive network (CEN), and the salience network (SN). We describe them along with methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electro/magnetoencephalography (EEG/ MEG) that are most frequently used in studying these networks. We discuss new neurocognitive studies of creative thinking, in which an association of insightful problem solving with one of these networks or their combinations has been revealed. We also consider main hypotheses proposed to explain the overcoming of fixation on erroneous solutions during apparent inactivity in terms of network interactions. In our opinion, this new direction of research may help in interdisciplinary grounding earlier psychological explanations and, to some extent, in rehabilitating the “restful inactivity” to optimize the work scheduling of personnel in creative professions.
Keywords: creative thinking, incubation, insight, resting state networks, Default Mode Network (DMN), Central Executive Network (CEN), Salience Network (SN), ambient attention, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG).
School bullying: Clarifying concepts
Krivtsova S.V., Shapkina A.N., Malygina M.P.
The article provides a brief overview of international and Russian scientific research related to the phenomenon of bullying in school, analyzes the stages of introducing the concept of bullying into social sciences, briefly describes the history of research on the phenomena in the Scandinavian countries and the USA, clarifies the similarities and differences between the concepts of “bullying” and “mobbing”. The authors attempt to distinguish between the concepts of bullying, aggression, violence, victimization, which are often confused. For this, a phenomenological analysis of aggression feelings and its varieties is given depending on the type of experienced threats. Aggression is understood as a reflexlike (proceeding “blindly”, automatically) defensive coping reaction with the effect of situational overcoming. Depending on the type of threat, such types of aggression as hate, rage, anger and cruelty stand out. They are described at the level of feelings. Hate “wants to destroy a threatening object”, rage “demands preservation of the quality of relationships, protects the quality of life”, anger protects self-value “demolishing the value and authority of threatening another”, and cruelty is the consequence of experiencing meaninglessness. The following article introduces the concept of violence. Unlike the senses, it is an activity that is characterized by deliberately harming another being. The principal here is the active-active nature of protective behavior. An analysis is made of the difference between violence and victimization, aggression in a broad sense (violence is one of the forms of aggressive behavior), the specificity of violence in the form of bullying is introduced into this series of concepts. As a result, the definition of bullying is given and a comment is made on each of the four criteria of bullying as 1) violent actions that are deliberate, 2) systematic, and 3) inflicted on a clearly weaker opponent 4) who is obvious in pain with this. In the second part of the article, the problem of recognition by teachers of various forms of aggressive feelings and aggressive behavior, constructive dealing with them is posed. The recognition of bullying by school teachers, and empirical research data on this topic are given. At the end, a brief description of The Bullying Situations Identification Instrument (BSI) to determine the ability of teachers to recognize the bullying is represented, the results of applying the methodology in the USA and the first data on Russian teachers.
Key words: bullying, aggression, violence, victimization, The Bullying Situations Identification Instrument (BSI).
The responsibility of the individual to the previous and future generations: A theoretical and empirical study
Nestik T.A., Dmitrieva U.A., Kuznetsova O.E., Larina G.N., Nikolaev E.L.
The approaches to the study of the phenomenon of responsibility to future generations in psychology and social sciences are considered. Its socio-psychological content and structure, psychological functions, and antecedents (intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, intergroup, and societal) are analyzed. Responsibility to other generations is understood as person’s awareness of her obligations to people who have already left or not yet born, allowing her to recognize herself as a co-author of collective historical destiny. The results of a series of empirical studies (N = 250, N = 521, N = 705) revealed a number of predictors of a sense of responsibility to future generations: global identification, social trust, proactive coping, fear of death, the value of benevolence, moral foundations of fairness and loyalty, social axiom of social complexity, and belief in justice of the world. Caring for future generations is directly related to person’s assessment of her ability to influence the future and helps overcome a fear of death by supporting the belief that prosocial behavior contributes to well-being in the afterlife. Unlike responsibility to ancestors, own children and grandchildren, the sense of responsibility to present and future generations weakens fatalistic ignorance of global risks and reinforces the belief in the need for cooperation to cope with them, as well as willingness to participate in collective activities to prevent global risks. Responsibility to previous generations is associated with a focus on conservative values, it increases the significance of global risks, but at the same time it keeps away from radical decisions and reinforces adherence to group norms in the face of catastrophes and their consequences. Prospects for further research are proposed.
Key words: social responsibility, past and future generations, ethics of the future, global risks, trust, time perspective, social axioms, moral foundations, value orientations.
The problem of inducing a negative attitude of the child to one of the parents in litigation
Guldan V.V., Sukhotin A.A., Sushkova E.Yu., Tokareva G.M.
The change of attitude to the institution of family and marriage in modern Russia can be traced by the statistics of divorces – more than half of the number of registered marriages. Conflict divorces are caused by special difficulties in resolving marriage and family disputes about the upbringing of children, which manifests the phenomenon of psychological induction, when covered by a negative attitude of a cohabiting parent sets the child against a separate living parent. When resolving family disputes over the upbringing of children, the courts should find out not only the opinion of the child, but also whether it is a consequence of the influence of one of the parents or other interested persons on the child, whether he / she is aware of his / her own interests in expressing this opinion and how he / she justifies it, etc. The article presents specific modified methods for establishing signs of psychological induction, which have shown their effectiveness in the production of complex judicial psychological and psychiatric examinations, as well as examples of examination of minors.
Key words: psychological induction, divorce, family conflict, disputes about the upbringing of children, judicial-psychological examination, comprehensive forensic psychological and psychiatric examination.
Typology of youth social activity depending on the adoption of moral standards
Akimova M.K., Galstyan O.A.
The purpose of this empirical study was to identify the types of students, the nature of certain practices of social interaction and related factors. The practices of social activity are understood as strategies of social interaction, involving both the manifestation of inaction in a complex social situation, and one’s own individual or various joint activity of the individual with other people. Moral standards such as trust, honesty and solidarity are considered as factors of social activity. Trust is an individual’s degree of trust in other people in interpersonal relationships, as well as trust in public institutions. Truthfulness, integrity, fidelity, sincerity and respect for the right of others to what is rightfully theirs are taken as manifestations of honesty, patriotism and citizenship, as well as love for relatives and friends, are taken as manifestations of solidarity. The article presents the results of cluster analysis, which allowed to identify the types of students who are characterized by certain practices of civic participation, from individual actions in a problem situation and taking responsibility for their results to complete inaction, and their relationship with moral qualities. It was possible to find out the representation of the selected clusters in the sample and on this basis to determine the level and nature of civic activity of students. As possible directions for further research we can distinguish a comparative analysis of social activity of students studying in universities of cities – territorial centers of different levels.
Key words: social activity of students, practices of social interaction, moral standards, trust, honesty, solidarity.
Conscious self-regulation of educational activity as a resource of subjective well-being of schoolchildren under changing conditions of education
Morosanova V.I., Fomina T.G.
The article discusses the problem of internal sources and determinants of subjective well-being of students in the school environment to substantiate the hypothesis of the significant role of conscious self-regulation in the formation of subjective well-being of students with changing learning conditions. To test this hypothesis, a two-wave longitudinal study was conducted, which was attended by students of IV classes of secondary schools in Moscow and the Moscow region. The second study was conducted in grade V, seven months after the first measurement. The total sample was 118 people. Diagnostics included two multi-scale survey methods: the questionnaire of V. I. Morosanova “Style of self-regulation of educational activity” and the questionnaire “Multidimensional children’s scale of life satisfaction”. As a result of dispersion and correlation analysis of the relationship between the level of formation of conscious self-regulation of educational activity of students and their subjective well-being found that from IV to V class there are significant changes in the direction of increasing indicators of subjective well-being, which were associated with the development of various regulatory characteristics of students. The results of structural modelling also indicate that the model best describes the empirical data, suggesting a cross-longitudinal relationship between the development of conscious self-regulation and the level of well-being of fifth-graders. Hence, we can make a significant theoretical and practical conclusion that conscious self-regulation of educational activities is not only a predictor of subjective well-being of fourth-graders, but also significantly predicts the level of their satisfaction with the school in the V class. The results show the importance of studies of conscious self-regulation of educational activity as a resource of subjective well-being of students, prognostic for its formation in subsequent ages.
Key words: conscious self-regulation, educational activity, subjective well-being, structural cross-longitudinal analysis.
Macro-social dynamics and ethnic tolerance/intolerance in contemporary Europe and Russia
Dontsov A.I., Zelenev I.A., Prokhoda V.A.
In the context of the effects of the migration crisis in recent years changes in macro-economic situation in European countries and Russia are considered. The empirical basis of the article is the results of processing some data of the project “European Social Survey” (ESS). It substantiates and illustrates the effectiveness of analyzing social phenomena on macro-ecological level. Countries are ranked according to the following indicators: the level of subjective well-being of the population, respondents’ perception of the majority of others as potentially “own”/”alien”, ethnic tolerance. Judging by the results, the level of subjective well-being of Russians in comparison with residents of other Eu-ropean countries – participants of ESS – is the lowest, the highest ones – Scandinavians and Swiss. Most other people, predominantly, are perceived as potentially “alien” in Poland, Italy, Portugal, Hungary, Slovenia and Russia; on “the opposite pole” of perception – the Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Denmark and Norway. The lowest level of ethnic tolerance was found in Hungary, Czech Republic, Russia, Italy, Estonia and Austria, and the highest in the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Norway, Sweden and Iceland. Groups of countries with specific dynamics on a complex of three considered indicators are defined. In some countries, including Russia, the phenomenon of consolidation of “own” with increasing willingness to discriminate against others on the basis of “otherness” is revealed. Its nature is interpreted as a manifestation of one of the basic social instincts – a sense of belonging to the community, actualized with full force in periods of social instability or danger. It is stated that in the most pronounced form such consolidation was manifested in Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Assessing the dynamics of the situation in our country and taking into account that the European migration crisis practically did not affect it, the authors substantiate the conclusion that the basic reason for the consolidation of “own” in recent years is the violation of the conditions of psychological security in Russian society.
Key words: interdisciplinary, migrants, migration, electoral, subjective well-being, “own”, “alien”, otherness, trust, ethnic tolerance/intolerance, consolidation, social instinct, psychological security, factor analysis, cluster.
Features of perception of life events by people with different preferred styles of response to changes
Bityutskaya E.V., Bazarov T.Yu.
The problem of personal response to the situation of life changes is discussed. The peculiarities of the perception of significant life events by the representatives of four styles of response to changes, selected on the basis of the typology of T.Yu. Bazarov and M.P. Sychev are discussed. The perception is considered in the framework of the concept of the image of the world of A.N. Leontiev and his followers. An empirical study (n = 325) using qualitative methods of data collection and analysis was conducted. In addition, a standardized questionnaire was used to identify the preferred style of the respondent: 1) conservative (negative attitude to change), 2) reactive (negative experience), 3) implementing (cognitive acceptance), 4) innovative (positive attitude, acceptance). Qualitative data is divided into four arrays, corresponding to the preferred styles of response to changes, and processed separately. The semantic categories allocated for four designated styles are presented. The analysis of categories makes it possible to describe for each style ideas about how to respond to turning events, relationships, expectations, meanings of situations of life changes, as well as ways of coping, effective for their adoption. When summarizing the results, cognitive, emotional, behavioral components of the image of the situation of life changes are presented. Thus, representatives of implementing and conservative styles described a variety of cognitive coping strategies and self-control. The respondents of reactive style are characterized by the catastrophization of the situation of changes, the hope that everything will be resolved by itself, the search for positive sides, self-blame. Representatives of the innovative style assess the situation of changes as attractive, bringing new opportunities. Acceptance/rejection of changes is accompanied by positive/negative emotions, respectively. Regarding the intensity of emotional response innovators and reactivers report stronger experiences. At the behavioral level, implementers and innovators describe an active position on the situation of change. Conservatives are characterized by resistance to change, attempts to maintain stability, the reactivers – by avoidance.
Key words: styles of response to changes, life event, life change, perception of events, the image of the world, the method of reasonable theory.
Pets’ influence on their owners’ psychological wellfare
Nikolskaya A.V., Kostrigin A.A.
The article discusses the interaction of a human and a pet. The question of the influence of a pet on the psychological wellbeing and personal traits of its owner is considered. It is noted that in the Russian literature only a positive aspect of the influence of a pet on a person is revealed, while there is a need for a comprehensive coverage of the effect of an animal on mental health and other mental phenomena of a person, including both the advantages and disadvantages of the interaction in question. The authors focus on the situation of interaction between a disabled person and a pet. A theoretical analysis of foreign studies on the positive and negative effects of interaction of people (including disabled ones) and pets and their impact on the psychological wellbeing of the owners is carried out. Inconsistency and lack of quantitative research is identified. The authors present the results of the empirical study of the personality of disabled people having pets, and compare them with a group of disabled people who do not have pets. It has been shown that the presence of pets provides a positive effect on the emotional state of disabled people: their self-esteem, emotional stability and motivation to work increase, which is an important factor for creating a psychologically satisfactory life. It is concluded that individuals with disabilities who have pets as deputy social partners have greater self-efficacy and readiness for action.
Keywords: interaction of a person and a pet, pet, disabled people, psychological wellbeing, emotional stability, self-esteem, motivation, social adaptation, animalassisted therapy.
Psychological foundations of educational practice in S. L. Rubinstein’s theory
An attempt is made to turn to the heritage of S.L. Rubinstein – an outstanding Russian psychologist and philosopher, the author of works on the methodology of psychology, in order to rely on the ideas presented by him in the development of applied issues of psychology. In particular, the provisions concerning pedagogical psychology and psychology of education are analysed. Various periods of scientific creativity of S.L. Rubinstein are covered, beginning from the principle of creative amateur activity formulated in 1922 and finishing with his last works. Special attention is paid to the theoretical and methodological principles, acting, on the one hand, the grounds for the study of the laws of mental development of the child in the learning environment, the relationship between the processes of education and training, and on the other – in need of testing daily psychological practice. As a fundamental principle of unity of education – training and psychological knowledge of children, as well as the conclusions that were made from it by S.L. Rubinstein and his followers. The author analyses S.L. Rubinstein’s understanding of the relationship between pedagogical and psychological knowledge and the specifics of pedagogical psychology as an independent scientific field. The main problem of pedagogical psychology of the ratio of training and mental development was the subject of special study in the works of S.L. Rubinstein, which allowed him to formulate provisions of an applied nature that are important for educational practice. In conclusion, the idea of the heuristic potential of S.L. Rubinstein’s ideas and their significance for the modern psychology of education and pedagogical practice, the presence of a two-way relationship between psychological knowledge and practice is underlined. This idea not only has not lost its relevance, but has acquired a special meaning in our time of socioeconomic reforms and the resulting expectations from education in general and primarily school education. The publication is dedicated to the 130th anniversary of S.L. Rubinstein celebrated in 2019.
Key words: scientific heritage of S.L. Rubinstein, theoretical and applied psychology, history of psychology, pedagogical psychology, psychology of education, educational practice.
On experimental studies of egocentric and inner speech conducted by the scientific group of L.S. Vygotsky
Zavershneva E.Yu., van der Veer R.
The evolution of L.S. Vygotsky’s ideas about the nature of egocentric and inner speech is generalized on the basis of the well-known and little-known works of L.S. Vygotsky, as well as his personal records. The analysis includes, in particular, a little-known monograph “School-age pedology” (1928), as well as the report of L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria “The function and fate of egocentric speech”, presented at the IX International psychological congress in New Haven (USA, 1929); the abstracts of the report are translated into Russian and published in the article for the first time. It is shown that the hypothesis of genetic relationship between egocentric and inner speech appeared in L.S. Vygotsky’ works no later than the beginning of 1928; its modification in the period from 1928 to 1934 is discussed. For the first time an attempt is made to reconstruct four types of experimental studies of egocentric and inner speech conducted by the scientific group of L.S. Vygotsky (R.E. Levina, A.N. Leontiev, A.R. Luria, A.A. Shein), each type of experiment is compared with a special hypothesis, and the features of the experimental design are commented. It is argued that the schematic presentation of the experiments and the lack of necessary quantitative data significantly complicate their analysis and replication, and that in the presentation of L.S. Vygotsky discussed experiments perform the function of illustration rather than the function of reinforcement of cultural and historical theory.
Key words: egocentric speech, inner speech, cultural and historical theory, IX International psychological congress, L.S. Vygotsky, R.E. Levina, A.N. Leontiev, A.R. Luria, A.A. Shein, J. Piaget.
The problems of plagiarism and research priority in the studies of the crowd at the end of XIX century
The main features of scientific plagiarism are described. By the material of three “cases” from the initial period of formation of crowd psychology incorrect borrowings in the works of H. Fournial, G. Le Bon, B. Sidis are analysed. In particular, in H. Fournial’s book several cases of text plagiarism from the work of S. Sighele, including the so-called hybrid form – a combination of fragments of foreign material with references to the source and without them – are identified. Based on the analysis of six publications chronologically preceding the debate on the scientific priority of 1895 and not mentioned by any of the parties, charges of G. Le Bon of plagiarism of his ideas against S. Sighele are recognized groundless. All of them, without exception, are available in earlier sources. The fact of plagiarism of N.K. Mikhailovsky’s text and ideas in the first American publications of B. Sidis was unnoticed by the scientific community. The author of the article published in this issue of the journal considers it appropriate to extend the concept of scientific priority not only to unique ideas, but also to the texts that generalize knowledge within the subject area for the first time. He substantiates the need to highlight a new type of plagiarism, which consists in the deliberate concealment by the author’s of the predecessor’s contribution or the denial of the value of his work. Such a “plagiarism of publicity” can provide an unscrupulous scientist with a benefit in the form of creating an exaggerated impression of the importance of his own research in the scientific community.
Keywords: ethical violations, plagiarism, scientific priority, plagiarism of publicity, psychology of the XIX century, crowd, crowd research.
Analytic and holistic processes in face perception: Models and research methods
Menshikova G.Ya., Lunyakova E.G., Gani-zade D.S.
The faces are one of the most informative and significant environmental stimuli for humans. Facial recognition and identification data have shown that the faces are perceived differently from other objects. It has been suggested that there are holistic perceptual processes that are more important than the processes of analysis of individual features. The article provides an analysis of modern concepts of holistic and analytical processes of facial perception. The main types of experimental paradigms developed for the study of these processes are considered: the “part–whole” effect, as well as the phenomena of the composite face, face inversion, and others. The main reasons for the inconsistency of data obtained using different types of experimental paradigms are considered. The paper discusses the current understanding of holistic processes of facial perception, according to which the integrity of perception is provided by several processes related to the coding of topological and metric relationships between individual facial features, as well as the perception of the face as a single Gestalt. The influence of the type of experimental paradigms on the degree of severity of holistic and analytical processes of facial perception is discussed.
Key words: face perception, analytical and holistic processes, configuration processes, “part or whole” effect, composite face effect, inversion effect.