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The «dark side» of digital competence of Russian adolescents: illusion of competence and risky behavior online
G.U. Soldatova, E.I. Rasskazova
The paper presents a study of relationship between digital competence of Russian adolescents who make right or wrong decisions in simple tests about online situations with online risks and choice of action strategies in ambiguous social situations online. The illusion of digital competence is understood as obvious mistakes in solving everyday situations online (for example, the readiness to e-mail a login and password from the mailbox in response to a e-mail from the supposedly “site administration”) in those adolescents whose digital competence index is above average. Based on data of Russian population research of digital competence (N=1203, 12–17 year-olds) we demonstrate that the total digital competence is associated with higher probability of experience of a wide range of online risks, probably, in part due to excessive self-confidence, and partly due to the overall higher level of user activity. Inability to solve simple problem tasks is associated with a more rare experience of online risks. In uncertain social situations, digital competence online can increase the risk of potentially dangerous actions by contributing to the abandonment of apparently unproductive strategies of action (especially avoidance). Every fourth Russian teenager keeps illusion of digital competence that is associated with an additional risk. Being abused or offended by stranger online these teenagers are less likely to solve the problem “technically” and more likely to reply with aggression. Communicating online they are more open to tell a new acquaintance the information that allow to find and meet them. We assume that the total digital competence giving adolescents’ confidence and expanding their range of activities, increase the risks of online. Its illusion further amplifies some of these risks due to less practical skills and the worse appraisal of risks. The results demonstrte that the task of providing online security for adolescents is not limited to developing their competence, because in some cases, teens who are competent in a variety of Internet activities are powerless in solving simple everyday problems online.
Key words: illusion of digital competence, index of digital competence, risky behavior online, Russian adolescents.
Psychological characteristics of school adaptation in intellectually gifted adolescents
The review of studies of school adaptation in intellectually gifted adolescents on the material of current English language publications is presented. The author analyzes data on emotional and social problems of such children arguing that gifted students are not more vulnerable than their less gifted peers. At the same time they may have specific problems preventing them from realizing their potential. However the link between those problems and giftedness is not obvious and requires further research. Of special interest is perception by gifted students of their school problems because it is self-assessment of the problems that affects their well-being and behavior at school. An empirical study was conducted to research self-assessment of adaptation problems in gifted students most often mentioned in literature, their co-relation and their links to indices of intellect, academic performance and social adaptation. 250 students of grades VII to XI of gymnasiums were studied to obtain data on maximum expression of problems caused by versatility of capacities, perfectionism, and high parental expectations. Problems caused by emotional excitability and especially by insufficient complexity of instruction were given low ratings. Girls rated problems of emotional excitability and perfectionism higher than boys. There are also links between self-assessments of various problems as well as between those assessments and indices of intellect, academic performance and social adaptation. On the whole the findings reveal danger of stereotypes, both positive and negative, in psychological and pedagogical support of gifted children.
Key words: intellect, gifted students, school adaptation, perfectionism, parental expectations, high excitability, versatility of capacities.
Structure of a personal space of events in different developmental stages
V.B. Nikishina, E.A .Petrash
A study was conducted to discover the structure of a personal space of events in different developmental stages (adolescence, youth, adulthood, old age). The study discovered that the structure of a personal space of events changes in ontogenesis with respect to both co-relation of elements and links between them. In adolescence the space structure is disintegrated which is caused by low indices of regulatory processes of planning, programming and modeling, as well as low anticipation. In youth and adulthood the structure of the space of events is integrated which is ensured by high levels of planning programming and anticipation. In old age integrity of the space of events is much lower which is supported by a tendency towards low expression of regulatory processes of planning, programming and modeling with high anticipation.
Key words: personal space of events, inner events, outer events, co-relation of events, developmental stages.
Psychological aspects of rehabilitation
M.S. Kovyazina, N.A. Varako, E.I. Rasskazova
The paper discusses rehabilitation of patients with mental disorders after brain injuries, defining the notion of rehabilitation and associated notions, stressing the complexity of the problem caused by diversity of opinions on its different aspects. Conflicting definitions can be explained by absence of clear definitions of co-relation of social medical measures and underestimation of psychological aspects of rehabilitation. A number of authors focus on the goals of the process, others point out systemic organization of rehabilitation and focus on its outcomes. The issue of content and aims of rehabilitation remains controversial. There are two terms used to define the process: psychological rehabilitation and psychology of rehabilitation. It is emphasized that focus on psychological aspects of rehabilitation is caused by greater attention to man in science and especially by the logic of development of medical thinking. Three major psychological aspects of rehabilitation are described: focus on the most acute problems of the patient, active involvement of the patient and his family in the treatment, a team approach to rehabilitation. Recognition of psychological aspects of rehabilitation poses a number of questions connected with development of concrete approaches and methods, with bridging the gap between theory and practice, with development of criteria and methods of assessing effectiveness of rehabilitation. The authors consider two principal approaches to rehabilitation – the functional and the social which seem to complement one another. According to the first approach, rehabilitation focuses on restoring lost functions; according to the second, rehabilitation is understood as re-socialization of the patient, restoration of his individual and social value as a person. The concluding part of the paper is devoted to cognitive rehabilitation and the associated terminology, such as neuropsychological rehabilitation and restoration of higher mental functions.
Key words: rehabilitation, psychological rehabilitation, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological rehabilitation, resocialization, bio-psycho-social approach.
Values in contemporary Chinese and Russian students: a comparative analysis of priorities
O.I. Danilenko, Ts. Li, I. Xuy
The paper presents findings of a comparative study of value priorities in Chinese and Russian students. The subjects were 487 engineering students (300 Chinese and 187 Russian) of higher educational establishments. The average age of the subjects was 21 years. The study used S. Swartz’s ”Values questionnaire” adapted for Russia by V.N. Karandyshev and for China – by L. Schonmin, as well as descriptive statistics and R. Spearman’s correlation quotient. The findings revealed a high degree of similarity between value orientations of Russian and Chinese students. In both cases personal success and independence, care for the family were named as priority values. There are also differences in value hierarchies. The value safety which motivates one to protect society and self ranks first in Russian students and sixth – in Chinese. The value hedonism ranks as least important in Chinese students, while in Russian students it is in the middle of the list. The discovered similarity of value priorities can be explained by proximity of ”cultural profiles”, discovered by means of comparing cultural values in Russia and China; by similarity of processes which took place in the XX century in the process of establishing socialism; by the fact that economy and political organization have been reformed in the past decades. Differences can be accounted for by specificity of reforms in Russia and China, by specificity of socialization of Russian and Chinese students. Compliance of students’ value priorities with goals of their development as subjects of future professional activity and with trends in the development of their own country indicates prognostic competence of students in both Russia and China.
Key words: personal values, value priorities, cultural values, Chinese students, Russian students, trends in the development of society, prognostic competence.
Authentic vocalizations: in search of the voice of the inner self
A.V. Zirko, A.B. Orlov
The paper discusses vocal therapy as part of music therapy, providing a review of vocal practices in various therapeutic contexts (man-focused expressive therapy, vocal motor therapy, composing therapeutic songs), and analyzing two conceptions of singing – “singing for the public”, impressive, aimed at producing a certain effect, based on musical education and professional mastership; and “singing in company”, expressive, aimed at self-expression. Therapeutic vocalization is described as a means of self-expression and self-research. The authors concentrate on man-focused variations of therapy (free associative singing, vocal improvisations, authentic singing) which help to release the client’s authentic vocalizations and his authentic voice (the voice of the inner self). According to the man-focused approach, the therapist’s personal sets, such as congruence, unconditional positive acceptance and empathic understanding as essential conditions of positive changes in the client, are realized not only in client-centered therapy, but in any other communication aimed at the client’s development. The authors believe that such conditions are realized in authentic vocalizations which are viewed as vocalizations of one’s congruent (undistorted) experiences. With the help of a three-part model of congruence of experiences the authors classify potential manifestations of the client’s subjective experience, identify the congruent experience and six types of incongruent experiences. The congruent experience is defined as expressed outwardly and undistorted. According to the author’s hypothesis, unauthentic vocalizations express the client’s incongruent experiences and can be described as the voice of his personality or the outward self, while authentic vocalizations can be viewed as expressions of his congruent (undistorted) experiences, as the voice of his nature, his inner self. Psychological research into authentic vocalizations is an important line of empirical studies of foundations of humanitarianism.
Key words: therapy, music therapy, vocalizations, vocal practices, authenticity, authentic singing, authentic voice, selfresearch, inner self.
Methods of studying ways of solving personal problems
M.M. Danina, N.V. Kiselnikova, E.A. Kumiskaya, E.V. Lavrova, A.A. Golzitskaya
The paper looks at approaches and schools which deal with notions linked to the construct “personal problem”, “social problem”, “life problem”, “everyday problem”. Questionnaires and other diagnostic procedures were created to research issues of the kind. Analysis of a number of existing approaches to measuring various aspects of solving personal or social problems demonstrated that only four techniques relate to competencies in solving real life problems: PSI, SPSI-R, IDEA, MEPS. The greater part of other techniques have serious limitations for a number of reasons. The first reason is absence of a uniform theoretical foundation or even of an understanding of what is a personal problem. A second reason is insufficient empirical testing of validity of the instruments which is brought about by absence of a uniform notion and differences in interpretation of basic notions, such as “problem” and “solution”. As a result many techniques which are meant to study the process of problem solving in fact assess “solution without solving”, i.e. the end result only. It is also pointed out that problem solving is initiated in a situation of high ambiguity and complexity and methods for studying it must create the appropriate conditions. Selfreport questionnaires, popular in research of personal problem solving, do not answer that requirement and therefore cannot serve as a stimulus triggering problem solving activity.
Key words: psychology of problem solving, personal problems, methods, psychological diagnostics.
Alcoholism as a cause of regression in learning and in pro-social behavior
Yu.I. Àlexandrov, Î.Ye. Svarnik, I.I. Znamenskaya, K.R. Arutiunova, M.G. Kolbeneva, A.K. Krylov, A.N. Bulava
Despite a long history of the notion of regression, its manifestations and mechanisms are still poorly researched, specific experimental studies are rare, points of view conflict. A study was conducted to discover dynamics of subjective experience and brain activity lying at the foundation of phenomena described as regression and observed in seemingly heterogeneous phenomena, such as stress, illness, violent emotions, alcoholic intoxication. The paper discusses the notion of regression from different angles, including the systemic evolutionary approach, and analyzes its potential brain and neuro-genetic mechanisms. It has been experimentally proved that a high degree of alcoholic intoxication causes regression brought about by reverse de-differentiation: a relative increase of representation of lowly differentiated systems in actual experience. In experimental situations of learning in animals lowered activation of neurons of the first (drinking) skill was observed in the process of development of the second (eating) skill. In order to discover effects of alcohol on the general pattern of moral judgements the authors analyzed dynamics of the index of moral acceptance of the death of one for the sake of many. Complexity of behavior is simplified under alcohol and individual differences in pro-social behavior become less expressed. Findings demonstrate similarities in assessments of socially meaningful actions under alcohol, which, the authors believe, points to the effect of alcohol as “de-differentiator” causing regression. The effects may be linked to the general mechanism of reversible de-differentiation which determines repression of a number of systems (and, consequently, of activity of a number of neurons) in the most differentiated “complex” systems. This simplification may be linked to accelerated learning and also to the fact that organization of behavior becomes more uniform.
Key words: memory, learning, individual experience, norm and pathology, systemic genesis, specialization of neurons, gene expression.
Automation of psychological examinations of law enforcement officials
M.V. Alyushin, L.V. Kolobashkina, G.V. Shutko, E.S. Gibadulin
Effective diagnostics of pre-illness conditions is essential for realization of the government policy of prevention of illness and support of health. This approach is especially important for law enforcement officers whose professional activity involves considerable physical and emotional stress affecting their mental health. Techniques of prescriptive screening are used for the purpose of diagnosing mental health. Unlike complicated and tiring traditional techniques of monitoring the current emotional state with the help of contact meters and psychometric tests, distance no contact technologies allow continuous monitoring in real time. The authors aim at discovering the potential of distance no contact technologies for registering individual biological parameters while conducting medical examinations of the officers, as well as prospects for creating an automatic system of scienmonitoring emotional and functional states. The article contains expert appraisals of applicability of no contact distance technologies for prescriptive screening in various tests. The authors stress importance of a personal data base as the foundation for automated prescriptive screening. Automation of the testing process will help to increase reliability of results due to minimizing monotony of testing procedures applied repeatedly as in the case of regular examinations. Non-contact distance technologies help to realize the basic functions of the polygraph which is useful not only as an instrument of professional selection, but also for other purposes (on-the job examinations, verification of operative information etc.). The non-contact technologies described have proved themselves as a reliable instrument for developing an automated system of prescriptive screening of emotional and functional states of law enforcement officers.
Key words: human factor, monitoring of mental and emotional state, psychological climate, human resource management, prescriptive screening.
Definition of the notion of the unconscious in L.S. Vygotsky’s cultural historical psychology
L.S. Vygosky’s views on the nature of the unconscious are analyzed on the material of his later publications dated 1932–1934, his personal notes and archival records of the “Conference on research issues” (October 27–29, 1933) for the closest circle of colleagues, which discussed psychoanalysis and at which L.S. Vygotsky outlined ways of studying the unconscious from the ”pinnacle” point of view. The author analyzes the notions of the unconscious and the preconscious formulated within the framework of psychoanalysis, specifies the problem of the unconscious in cultural historical psychology: unconscious and preconscious processes are interpreted from the angle of the theory of dynamic sense systems, notions of the sense field and free meaningful action, of the proximal development zone and experiencing. With reference to K. Lewin whose findings L.S. Vygotsky used to formulate his views on dynamics of consciousness, the author outlines interconnection between configurations of the sense field and affective systems in neurotic development. The systemic principle suggested by L.S. Vygotsky in 1930 provides a context for researching the unconscious: development of the unconscious follows development of consciousness, emergence of tertiary links in psychological systems and transformation of the primary affect in the field of language and culture. In case of disorders the non-symbolized affect falls out of the developmental process and creates in the structure of the personality a region with a specific sense dynamic, isolated and unnaturally growing (at the expense of neighboring regions), which leads to demolishment of all motivational hierarchy. The author comments on L.S. Vygotsky’s idea that neurosis is caused by inability to transform the affective complex into an experience, and discusses differences between the psychoanalytic and the cultural historical approaches, as well as goals of therapy and attitudes of psychologists working within the two frameworks.
Key words: consciousness, unconscious, subconscious, psychoanalysis, sense field, experience, L.S. Vygotsky, S. Freud, J. Lacan.
V.P. Kashchenko and L.S. Vygotsky: A history of the name for the science of the defective child
The paper is an attempt to reconstruct the history of the Russian language name for the science of development, upbringing and instruction of children with physical and mental disorders. At first the names varied. The notion “defective child” was introduced by V.P. Kashchenko, but neither he nor his colleagues ever mentioned the word “defectology” which was used by the scientific community alongside with the notions of “correctional pedagogy”, “pedagogic correction”, “pathological pedagogy” and others. L.S. Vygotsky used the word “defectology” as well as “correctional pedagogy” and “psychology of a difficult childhood”. L.S. Vygotsky is believed to have laid foundations of Soviet defectology and his defectologic research complements his psychological studies. L.S. Vygotsky often pointed out terminological difficulties of pedagogical psychology. The current state of the terminology of the science of the defective child is described on the basis of specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias which lead the author to the conclusion that the process of defining the science of development, upbringing and instruction of children with developmental disorders is not yet completed, considering socially determined tendencies in the development of the terminology. The author suggests that absence of a uniform name early in the XX century reflects on one hand the state of the science itself which was only emerging, on the other hand – evolution of the public attitude to the science. The problem of defining methodology of defectology raised by L.S. Vygotsky in the 1920s–1930s triggered the process in which cultural historical psychology became the foundation for formulating conceptions of pathological child development. The article marks the 90th anniversary of L.S. Vygotsky’s work “The historical meaning of the crisis in psychology” (1927).
Key words: defectology, correctional pedagogy, special pedagogy, cultural historical psychology, pedology, defective child, exceptional children, difficult child.
A.A. Ukhtomsky’s contribution to the science of man
The paper describes the contribution of A.A. Ukhtomsky, physiologist, one of the founders of the Leningrad physiological school, to the science of man as a complex field of scientific research which is traditionally linked to the conception of B.G. Ananiev who characterized psychology as the centerpiece of the science. The author looks at A.A. Ukhtomsky’s life and work with emphasis on the main turning points in his spiritual and scientific development which determined his interest in man as a unity of body and soul, especially in his motives, the moving force of behavior and creativity. The scientist’s outlook was extremely complex and incorporated not only philosophy, natural sciences and humanities, but religion as well, as part of human cultural experience. The author believes that A.A. Ukhtomsky’s choice of physiology for profession can be explained by his dissatisfaction with failure of psychology to provide appropriate explanations. He hoped to find the moving organs of the human soul with the help of ideas and methods which physiology uses to study the meaning and functions of human organs. A.A. Ukhtomsky viewed physiology not only as an independent field of scientific knowledge, but also as a bridge to psychology. The paper reveals synthesis of the principal notions of A.A. Ukhtomsky’s physiological conception with psychological generalizations pertaining to various aspects of mental life – cognitive and emotional processes, creativity, personality, communication and behavior in general. The author explains the notion of the dominant as a temporary constellation of nerve centers, a temporary combination of forces for a specific job, which serves as the leading force for all manifestations of an organism in norm and pathology. The nuclear notion of the dominant is linked to the notion of the chronotope as the principle of temporal and spatial organization of the brain and the organism as a whole. The author also notes A.A. Ukhtomsky’s treatment of psychological notions of space and time, psychological time and its role in organizing human experience, defines the notion of the functional organ as a dynamic functional foundation of the mind as opposed to the traditional understanding of it as a static unit. Besides, A.A. Ukhtomsky’s treatment of personality was closely linked to moral behavior, to understanding intuition and conscience as ways of cognizing it and to a conclusion that personal development can be directed as desired. The author concludes that A.A. Ukhtomsky’s physiological conception is closely connected with psychological ideas and the complex approach to man in psychology.
Key words: science of man, religion, psychology, physiology, dominant, chronotope, functional organ, intuition, conscience, personality.
Notional and research discourse: problems of personal life strategies
O.Yu. Pereverzina, Yu.V. Sinyagin
The paper deals with genesis of views of national and world scientists on the problem of personal life strategies, revealing heuristic potential of the principal methodological approaches which directly or indirectly include life strategies in their notional and research discourse. The authors describe various interpretations of the term “life strategies” and associated notions, such as “the subjective picture of one’s way in life”, “the life plan”, “the way in life” etc., and analyze principal approaches to studying life strategies: the systemic functional (which enables the researcher to use the potential of life strategies as a complex structured system for analyzing various elements of life strategies and situations in which they manifest themselves); the existential humanistic (which explains human life as a search for the meaning of life and the meaning of one’s existence); the scenario (emphasizing the role of childhood experience in formation of the life scenario and the necessity to match a person’s choices with their individual characteristics); the spatial temporal (which unites the three times – the present, the past and the future); the eventful situational (which focuses on studying personality in the context of the life situation); the subject activity (which focuses on the subject’s development as his formation as personality); the narrative biographical (which studies all events and developments in a specific social and cultural context); the psychological akmeological (which studies movement of a person to the top of their personal development); the reflexive humanistic (which discloses characteristics of the principal life paradigms; exhaustion of life, birth of life, creation of life). The authors also analyze attempts of some authors to study life strategies in the context of professional plans and educational trajectories.
Key words: personal life strategies, systemic functional approach, existential humanistic approach, scenario approach, spatial temporal approach, eventful situational approach, subject activity approach, narrative biographical approach, psychological akmeological approach, reflexive humanistic approach.