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Emergence of subjectness out of the spirit of the science of man
The category of subjectness is acquiring the leading position
in the categorial system of contemporary psychology playing
the role of a link between specific psychological approaches.
The integrating power of the category is mostly determined by
the hidden potential of the supporting context of the science of
man and its link to the general logic of development of social
and humanitarian sciences. On the basis of the cultural analytical
approach and analysis of publications on the subject four
stages in the evolution of Russian psychology of subjectness
can be identified: 1) the period of latent development when
the category of ”subject” was developing within the framework
of general psychology and outside psychology; this period includes
formation of notions of the subject of life and activity
in the works of classics of national psychology; 2) the canonical
period during which psychology of the subject emerged as
a special branch of psychology; the highest point of that period
was A.V. Brushlinsky’s research program described in his
publications of the 1990s; 3) the methodological integrative
period characterized by the problem of the subject transcending
limitations of specific psychological approaches and being
perceived as closely linked to the science of man; 4) the current
stage that can be characterized as a trans-disciplinary period
with problems of transformation of subjectness coming to the
fore in view of global changes in contemporary culture and the
complicated nature of the social cultural situation.
Keywords: methodology, psychology of subject, subjectness, science of man, trans-disciplinary nature, epistemological turns.
Psychological conditions for understanding the world of man
The author argues that the scientific notions of three realities
(empirical, social cultural and existential) of human existence,
constructing the world of man, are being gradually broadened
and deepened as psychologists discover more about not only
types of understanding the world, but about its conditions.
Key words: understanding subject, general and specific understanding conditions, sign, cognitive symbol, existential symbol.
Identity as a constructed text
Identity is viewed as a reflexive text produced by the subject in the course of life. In the context of trinitarian methodology the subject is analyzed through the prism of his life world. The dimensions of this world are the subject himself, space and time. Consequently, three ways of organizing identity have been identified: integrity, multiple identity (system), text, which are similar to aspects of mental organization of the subject. Expansion of the identity text (“subject”, “subject in context”, “subject of life activity”) leads to increased constructive complexity (text, text of texts, recursive text). Complexity of the identity text involves various methods of its construction differing in the number of the author’s positions. An integrated text has one author; a system (text of texts) has two: the author of an integrated text and the author of specific texts; in a recursive text another position is added in which the author unites complex texts of separate life stages into an integrated text of life. Multiplication of the number of authors’ positions leads to shaping of the subject who increases complexity of his own mental instrument of constructing the identity text. Reflection as one’s image of oneself is complemented by a two-stage reflection when the subject first reconstructs a certain social context in which he defines his own role/position which later transforms into “reflection of reflection” when a reflexive text is an attached text of a fragment of life which has an imaginary author. The author suggests a trinitarian conception of identity as an integrated reflexive text; as a process of constructing (a system of) notions of oneself including a diversity of possible contexts for functioning; as an instrument of his mental organization. This approach to identity allows the author to put forward a model of its development. Unfolding of the organization of a complex identity text in the process of its construction is realized in the following ways: expansion of the content of the text; shaping of the author; improvement of the instrument for constructing identity.
Key words: trinitarian approach, identity, text, author, reflexion, constructive complexity.
Psychological aspects of ageing
The psychological factors of the old age and psychological characteristics of this age period are under analysis in the article. It is noticed that this age period is not studied enough – in psychology as well as in other social sciences and humanities, and there is no acceptable conception of aging. The author also states that the cult of youth – juvenalism – became the background of the life philosophy of the XX century and the respect for old people is going down even in traditional societies, negative stereotypes of oldness dominate, but at the same time the old age is becoming “younger” – shift of traditional image of this age following the lengthening of the average lifespan. Their psychological state is depicted. The author comes to a conclusion that recommendations to old people aimed to improving their psychological state are predominately reduced to remaining young as long as possible, that is not achievable in principle. To the authors opinion modern society is in need of special “ideology” of oldness, which is to integrate different aspects, especially economic, social and psychological ones.
Key words: oldness, ageing, types, the age of fall, psychological characteristics, loneliness, “ideology” of oldness, psychological recommendations.
Strategies of self-realization in students
S.A. Bogomaz, V.E. Klochko, O.M. Krasnoryadtseva, M.A. Podojnicina
The paper presents findings of a study aimed at discovering the link between indices of intellect (general, social, emotional) and typological characteristics of self-realization strategies dominant in students of Tomsk universities. The authors discuss effectiveness of previously used techniques of identifying characteristics of different intellects, for study of typological parameters of self-realization being identified in studies of the post-non-classical level. The authors have established that prevalence in young people of the strategy ”assent” is linked to the ability to manipulate other people’s emotions, readiness for co-operation, and absence of the inclination to avoid conflict. The study also discovered insufficient stability of the student’s inner world. In the majority of the students stability is at a low and medium level; ability to control oneself and one’s own life is expressed at a low level.
The data emphasize necessity of psychological and educational support of actualization and development of reflexive abilities of university students because it is an effective instrument of developing a reflexive attitude to creating one’s own life. On the basis of principles of systemic anthropological psychology the authors used actualization of inner resources of young people’s personal potential for self-realization as a key direction of developing and testing various forms of psychological support oriented towards formation of a new meaningful dimension.
Key words: self-realization, typological characteristics, self-realization strategies, intellectual development, types of intellect, intellectual determination.
A study of characteristics of the emotional-volitional sphere of drug-addicted young people
O.D. Soldatova, I.N. Kolesnikov
The paper presents findings of a study of characteristics of
emotional-volitional regulators which enhance (weaken) the
effect of a rehabilitation course for young people (boys and girls
aged 16–25) with a drug addiction. The study revealed major
variations in intensity of manifestation of volitional regulation
in drug addicts, age dynamics of the intensity, the link between
different styles of volitional regulation.
Key words: volitional regulation, diagnostics, drug addiction, rehabilitation, dynamics, emotional-volitional sphere.
Characteristics of perception by preschoolers of the play role in various playing environments
E.O. Smirnova, I.A. Ryabkova
The paper discusses role replacement in preschool play with
varying material which is viewed as a three component structure
including the image (renaming), reshaping (disguising)
and play actions. Characteristics of the above components in
play with role markers and in play with multifunctional object
material were compared in the study. 166 children aged 3 to 7
took part in the study. 89 of them were playing with role markers
(RM), 77 – with multifunctional material (MM). Each
group was divided into four age subgroups. It was discovered
that role images are not always expressed in play actions.
Child ren often give themselves role names, distribute the roles,
but do not perform any play actions. By senior preschool age
the number of role names may be more than four per one child
in a 30-minute play. The study showed varying age dynamics in
play with role markers and with varying material.
Key words: role play, renaming, play actions, disguising, role markers, multifunctional material.
“Rodger’s triad”: personal qualities or communicative processes?
K.S. Kryuchkov, A.B. Orlov
There has been a sufficient number of empirical studies of links
between elements of “Rodger’s triad” (unconditional positive
acceptance, empathic understanding, congruent self-expression)
and individual personal qualities (e.g. “the Big Five”:
exraversion, friendliness, awareness, emotional stability, openness
Key words: therapy, man-centered approach, essential conditions, “Roger’s triad”, empathy, congruence, acceptance, personality, persona, shadow, personalization, personification, motivational attitude.
The narrative as an instrument for arbitrary sense formation
The problem of development of arbitrary sense formation is researched
by means of comparing the cultural historical conception
and the narrative approach in psychology. The general idea
is the acquired ability to move within the proximal development
zone by means of cooperation mediated by “instruments-organs”
which do not only provide an image of the world but also
produce new personal experience, new meanings. The narrative
is viewed as a meaningful structure mediating self-organization
of meanings and thus serving as an instrument of arbitrary sense
formation. While constructing a narrative, the subject creates
meanings, experiencing himself as being able to influence
one’s own life, to be its author. A structural functional description
of the narrative (“the author’s position”, “the existential
concept” (life modus), “the plot of the narrative”, “the hero’s
position”) is based on L.S. Vygotsky’s idea of unity of structure
and function. Transition from structural functional analysis to
processual dynamic description of arbitrary sense formation is
executed through identification of the essential characteristic of
the narrative – “the double landscape”.
Keywords: arbitrary sense formation, narrative, mediation, proximal development zone, action landscape, meaning landscape, signification of sense, comprehension of meaning.
Topology of comprehension of life meanings
The original method of investigating the semantic space of comprehension of life’s meanings is proposed in the article. It is based on a combination of psychosemantic and qualitative research methods in psychology. Using the methodical apparatus of the psychosemantic approach in conjunction with the method of solving the problem of the meaning of the dream allowed the author to consider the comprehension of life’s meanings not only from the point of view of the subjectsemantic content of this process, but also from its spatialtemporal extension, that is, the internal topology in which the creative reflexive activity of comprehension. Due to the application of methodical methods of constructing semantic spaces to the connotative material of solving the problem of the meaning of dreams, the basic factors were singled out and described. They form the semantic space of a person’s comprehension of his life’s meanings, in which the existential dynamics of the personality unfolds: a) “the renewal of the semantic structure of life”; b) “reconstruction of the content of the subject’s problem as its present inadequate mode of being”. In the semantic space that forms these factors, four temporal spheres are identified and described, each of which is associated with special transformations of the semantic tissue that occur in the process of comprehension the meanings of life. The nature of these transformations is as follows. At the initial stage of sense formation, the main psychotherapeutic task of the respondent is to isolate one’s problem, consisting in the dysfunctionality of the existing mode of being, and its “admission” into the present, the recognition of its existence. “Admission” places the problem way in the “crucible” of the activity of the experience and initiates its transformation. Further along with the develop ment of the process of comprehension, the “deriving” of the dysfunctional semantic structure from the present into the past occurs and, indirectly, by the person’s disagreement with oneself, the temporal reorientation of the sense dynamics from the “past-present” system to the “present-future” system is carried out. This reorientation is accompanied by the renewal of the semantic structure of life and the readiness to build up our life relations in a new way.
Key words: comprehension of life’s meanings, solution of the problem of the meaning of the dream, semantic space, reflexive activity.
Modern approaches in the study of spatial abilities: a structure and etiology of individual differences
I.L. Aristova, E.A. Esipenko, K.R. Sharafieva, E.P. Maslennikova, N.A. Chipeeva, I.V. Feklicheva, E.L. Soldatova, A.Yu. Fenin, V.I. Ismatullina, S.B. Malykh, Yu.V. Kovas
The paper reviews results of the studies that were aimed to investigate spatial abilities as well as gender and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities. Biological, social and personal factors contributing to the development of these abilities are analyzed. Fundamental approaches towards understanding of spatial abilities structure are reviewed, the data supporting the hypothesis of a unitary and multicomponent structure are analyzed. In addition, a separation of spatial abilities into small and large scales is presented. The authors analyze the nature of gender differences in spatial abilities, specifically evolutionary and hormonal hypotheses, as well as effects of gender stereotypes and selfesteem. The extent of gender differences in spatial tasks performance may be related to age. However, how strongly gender differences are expressed in each of the aspects of spatial abilities remains unclear. Some researchers suggest that differences in spatial abilities may also be due to socio-economic status and motivation. It was shown that involvement in activities that are strongly related to spatial thinking may contribute to performance in spatial tests. One of the important aspect of analysis in this paper is the etiology of individual differences in spatial abilities. Several studies have shown that these differences are mainly due to the gene-environment interaction. Extensive twin studies demonstrate the prevailing contribution of hereditary factors in spatial abilities development. One research area of individual differences in spatial abilities is genetic polymorphism studies. This paper also reviews studies of spatial abilities from the cross-cultural prospective. Studies conducted in different cultural environments support the universal nature of individual differences in spatial abilities. However, despite the extensive knowledge of spatial abilities, our analysis underlines the demand for interdisciplinary approach, involving genetically informative studies of various aspects of spatial abilities, as well as cross-cultural and longitudinal studies in stratified samples.
Key words: spatial abilities, composites, sex and gender differences, cross-cultural research, individual differences.
The relation between risk acceptance, motivation and self-regulation (in a sample of medical workers)
I.I. Kamenev, T.V. Kornilova, A.Yu. Razvalyaeva
The article presents the results of an empirical study of medical
doctors and physician assistants (n = 48) that examined the
relationships between personality traits of risk readiness (using
the Personal Decision Making Factors questionnaire), self-regulation
styles (using the SSP questionnaire), motivation (using
Edwards’ Personal Preference Schedule, EPPS), and risk preferences
(or risk aversion) in verbal vignettes. The vignettes were
designed to implicate anticipation of threats related to distal and
uncertain consequences of decision making in the health domain.
Keywords: decision-making, prognostic task, readiness to risk, rationality, motivation, self-regulation, Edwards Personal Preference Schedule.
How cognitive styles affect accuracy and speed of visual signal detection
N.N. Volkova, A.N. Gusev
The paper deals with the study of cognitive styles as interindividual determinants of accuracy and speed of solving nearthreshold and threshold visual signal detection tasks. A total of 74 subjects aged between 16 and 40 years old (25 male, 49 female) performed a set of cognitive styles tests as well as visual signal detection tasks. We tested following cognitive styles: augmenting-reducing, leveling-sharpening, narrow-broad equivalence range, flexibility-rigidity of cognitive control and focusing-scanning. Psychophysical procedure was represented by modified visual signal detection task (“yes–no”), where a third stimulus – “distractor” was added to the original procedure, aimed at provoking impulsive responses. The task included two difficulty levels (near-threshold and threshold), which were set by the duration of stimulus presentation. For each difficulty level we analyzed accuracy (non-parametric sensitivity index A’) and speed (RT and RT stability) of solving the task. We found effects of single cognitive styles as well as factor interactions effects. We found individual differences between groups “augmenting” and “reducing” in speed of task performance, in its accuracy — between groups “flexibility of cognitive control” and “rigidity of cognitive control” as well as groups “focusing” and “scanning”. Individual differences in both speed and accuracy were found between ‘leveling’ and ‘sharpening’ groups. Moreover, these effects varied depending on task’s difficulty level. The findings were discussed within the framework of system-activity approach in psychophysics from the perspective of development of hypothetical functional organ, or perceiving functional system (based on the ideas of A.A. Ukhtomsky, A.N. Leontiev) as a tool of solving sensory task. We conclude that both task difficulty level as stimulus factor and cognitive styles as individual factors affect accuracy and speed of visual signal detection.
Key words: cognitive styles, psychophysics, individual differences, sensory task, signal detection.
Cross-analyzer interaction: operationalization of the notion in psychological research in Russia
K.A. Fomina, Ì.S. Kovyazina
The paper analyzes studies of cross-analyzer interaction (CAI), which is a manifestation of the brain’s integrative activity, in Russia. The problem of CAI has acquired special significance in the clinical psychological context due to psychology’s growing potential in discovering clinical syndromes in mental, neurological and somatic illnesses.
The authors indicate the starting point of this research in works by I.M. Sechenov, I.P. Pavlov and others, analyze physiological and psychological approaches, methods they use and indices of inter-sensory relations. They describe studies of physiological mechanisms of CAI in man. Psychological studies emphasize the importance of interaction of analyzer systems, but, in the authors’ opinion, the notion of CAI is not operationalized in those studies. In the first place experimentation in psychology is linked to characteristics of the theoretical model of psychological reality; it serves as the basis for empirical hypotheses. Conclusions are made on the basis of processed meanings of the dependent variable which, in its turn, is a consequence of using specific psychological techniques. The article analyzes correlation between empirical notions and techniques used in studying CAI. Issues linked to terminology and techniques assessing CAI also remain unsettled. The authors view interaction of analyzers as a manifestation of primary responses preparing the organism for acting in a constantly changing environment. The article defines the role of CAI in the structure and regulation of mental activity and behavior, suggesting a working definition of CAI and proving necessity of using D.N. Uznadze’s technique of forming a fixed set as an instrument for assessing the condition of CAI, because transposition of sets from one modality into ano ther is impossible without interaction of analyzer systems.
Key words: neuropsychology, brain’s integrative activity, fixed set method, cross-analyzer interaction, brain’s white matter.