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Objective and subjective well-being: two approaches to the problem
A.I. Dontsov, E.B. Perelygina, A.M. Rickel
The paper is an analytical review of the problem of objective and subjective well-being, describing principal approaches to understanding of subjective well-being and explaining the notions of social, demographic, economic etc. well-being. Having analyzed national and international empirical studies, the authors suggest several interpretations of connection between subjective and objective well-being. This connection is discussed on the example of common contemporary social problems (poverty, migration, political and economic disturbancies, crime, suicide, etc). For instance, the authors look at the index of well-being, common for interdisciplinary sociological, economic and social psychological studies, reflecting on the role of social problems in contemporary society and validity of a certain methodological approach to its investigation. The connection between subjective and objective wellbeing is treated as non-linear; culture and social context are viewed as principal mediating factors determining modification of subjective well-being in the context of the objective.
Key words: subjective well-being, objective well-being, economic well-being, social problems.
Socialization of contemporary adolescents: Informational context
N.A. Golubeva, T.D. Martsinkovskaya
The new tendencies in socialization of adolescents caused by increasing influence of information as a new factor of socialization are looked at. Specificity of informational socialization is determined by both cognitive characteristics of the adolescent and emotional components of searching for, processing and conveying information, as well as new language forms which emerge on the Internet and spread to other spheres. The authors explain the role of motivation, creative activity, developmental goals and identity styles in the process of informational socialization, analyze dynamics of development of informational space and of perception and interpretation of information, revealing positive and negative aspects of informational socialization in adolescence and youth. The authors also cite research findings which demonstrate considerable differences of informational spaces in elderly people and adolescents which proves actuality of the problem of informational re-socialization and relevance of the construct of the psychological chronotope in studying it. Some data mentioned in the article show that not only informational preferences, but also the degree of trust change with age. Informational preferences and the degree of trust also depend on space, so criteria for classification of information fields can be regarded as criteria for determining positioning within the information field and time. The paper contains findings of an empirical study of the role of motivation and developmental goals in broadening of an adolescent’s information field and in their work with information. The study looked at informational preferences and styles of working with information in adolescents with varying interests and motivation. The findings show that choice of the media and adolescents’ information field are closely linked to their interests and the social situation of development. The adolescent’s interests and their creative activity determine choice and means of obtaining information. The findings also prove that specificity of informational space is determined by the goals and the social context of development, while identity styles and ways of interpreting information are linked to motivation and creative activity.
Key words: information space, informational socialization, creative activity, identity styles.
Constructing a play design in preschoolers’ free play
The results of observing children’s free play are described. Free play is understood as involving minimal adult interference and absence of theme toys. Observations have revealed peculiarities of constructing play designs, including associative nature of play, multiple repetitions of actions, switching from one activity to another (abandoning the plot), emotional saturation as the foundation of ending the game. Play is treated as activity connected with ability to produce, develop and realize an idea. In this sense play organized by adults has a narrow pedagogical significance and is incapable of solving tasks of free play.
Key words: theme play, preschoolers’ free play, play design, means of constructing play design.
The role of conscious self-regulation in migrants’ social cultural adaptation
A.A. Nesterova, T.F. Suslova, G.I. Efremova
The paper presents findings of research into connections between viability and adaptation of migrants (N = 289) and style characteristics of their self-regulation. Characteristics and regularities of the links were identified with the help of correlation analysis which revealed differences in adaptation processes between migrants from Slavic and Asian republics of the former Soviet Union. Migrants from Central Asia are characterized by a lower level of viability and adaptation, larger areas of maladjustment caused by life in a new cultural environment. Various components of conscious self-regulation contribute meaningfully to migrants’ viability, adaptation and choice of more effective acculturation strategies. With the help of a regression equation the authors identify impact of selfregulation on indices of adaptation and viability proving that the maximum positive effect is produced by such variables as “planning’ and ‘flexibility”. However the index “assessment of results” may have a negative effect on adaptation and viability figures due to reflection and critical attitude to the results and speed of adaptation.
Key words: conscious self-regulation, viability, acculturation strategies, correlation and regression analysis, migrants’ adaptation.
Cultural and psychological factors of intergenerational value transmission among ethnic Russians in the North Caucasus
N.M. Lebedeva, Z. Kh. Lepshokova, V.N. Galyapina
The paper is devoted to the study of cultural and psychological factors of parent-child value similarity among ethnic minorities living in different cultural contexts. Ethno-national identity of adolescents and their parents was a cultural factor in the intergenerational transmission of values in the study, and the perceived psychological closeness, assessed by parents and children was the psychological factor. Representatives of two generations of 118 Russian families in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (KBR), where ethnic Russians are an ethnic and religious minority (distant cultural context) and of 109 Russian families in the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania (RSO– A), where Russians are an ethnic minority and a religious majority (close cultural context). The methods of the study include the Schwartz value questionnaire (PVQ-R), scales of ethnic and national identities from the international scientific project MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies), project questionnaires and scales of perceived child-parent closeness, evaluated by children and parents. The results of path analysis in the AMOS program showed that in the distant cultural context (KBR) ethno-national identity of Russian adolescents is positively related to parent-child value similarity and negatively related to psychological closeness with the parents perceived by children. In a close cultural context (RSO–A) ethno-national identity of parents and psychological closeness with their parents perceived by children are positively related to parent–child value similarity. In these two cultural contexts we also found that psychological closeness assessed by parents is negatively related to parent–child value similarity. In general, the results of the study indicate that in a culturally distant context, the ethno-national identity of an adolescent is a “transmission belt” and has a positive impact on the parent–child value similarity, whereas in a culturally close context, the role of transmission belts is performed by ethno-national identity of parents and psychological closeness with the parents as perceived by adolescents.
Key words: values, ethno-national identity, perceived psychological closeness, parent–child value similarity, cultural context, generations, ethnic Russians, the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (KBR), the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania (RSO–A).
V.M. Shukshin’s hero as a psychological type
The Kretschmer anthropological approach identifies three types: the asthenic, the picknic and the athletoid, each being a specific psychological type. Is there a possibility to expand the typology? According to the author, a fourth type can be identified which fits into the Kretschmer system. In his time E. Kretschmer pointed out inner characteristics of the mind of people belonging to two types: pathological sensitivity and pathological coldness of the asthenic and mood fluctuations from maniacal agitation to obvious depression in people of the picknic type. Apparently, those are mutually exclusive characteristics. Later the German psychiatrist discovered that the athletoid type is characterized by a certain proportion between psychological viscosity and explosiveness, in other words, between humility and willfulness, between hypersociality and asociality. All those qualities are not simply characteristic of each type, they coexist in them, and the person displays one characteristic, leaving the other in the shadow. The new type, named gracial, has already been recognized in anthropology, but the psychological constitution of such people is still unclear. In appearance they resemble children: their figures are almost miniature, while the head is relatively large. There are also a lot of infantile characteristics in their mentality: naivety, impulsiveness, egocentricity and high mobility of nerve processes. The author believes that the psychological specificity of the above type is determined by a balance between high emotionality and high rationality. Rationality is viewed as desire to find and logically process new information and construct it in the form of logical schemes. The neurophysiological basis of such people may be linked to a greater (than in the other types) functional activity of the right hemisphere and close interrelation with the limbic system, with short-term blocking of the frontal cortex. V.M. Shukshin’s characters are analyzed as an illustration of the above type. They have long been known as V.M. Shukshin’s cranks.
Key words: E. Kretschmer, V.M. Shukshin, psychological typi zation.
Return of the thought
V.A. Mazilov, UYu.N. Slepko
The authors discuss issues raised in V.D. Shadrikov’s article “Thought and its generation” (Voprosy Psikhologii. 2014. ¹ 5), pointing out actuality and theoretical importance of the subject. Specifically, there is a need to investigate the problem of thought in contemporary psychology of thinking which studies thinking without understanding its nature. The authors look at dynamics of interest in the phenomenon of thought in history, raising the issue of studying heterogeneity of thought. There are at least two types of philosophy: Poetic and composing. It is obvious that the role and genesis of thought in those spheres should be essentially different. The authors also discuss the link between thought and delusion, which is a necessary ingredient of creativity.
Key words: thought, thinking, image, V.L. Shadrikov, creativity.
“Cosciousness without words”: L.S. Vygotsky on man’s pre-speech horizon
The issue of higher mental functions is considered on the basis of L.S. Vygotsky’s published works and his notes from the family archive. The paper looks at the problem of defining and researching the area of “consciousness without words” which emerges at the start of ontogenesis and in the first stages of mic rogenesis of verbal thinking. The author draws a parallel between L.S. Vygotsky’s and A.A. Potiebnya’s views: A.A. Potiebnya’s hypothesis on the inflexion of the primary affect as the first act of sign mediation and on removal of the inner form of the word in the true notion is analyzed in the light of L.S. Vygotsky’s cultural historical psychology. L.S. Vygotsky’s views on influence of speech on emergence and development of higher mental functions are commented on in the light of L. Wittgenstein’s and V.B. Bibikhin’s ideas.
Key words: conscience, sign, meaning, sense, sense field, inner speech, primary affect, L.S.Vygotsky, A.A. Potiebya, V.B. Bibikhin, L.Wittgenstein.
A commentary on L.S. Vygotsky’s unknown piece of reporting: Impressions of the February revolution
V.S. Sobkin, T.A. Klimova
The publication is an unknown piece of reporting by L.S. Vygotsky in which he describes social psychological reactions of the Jewish population of Moscow to the February revolution of 1917. The text was published in the weekly “Novy put” which L.S. Vygotsky worked for as a secretary from the middle of 1916 to the end of 1917 and where he also published his articles. The text was discovered by the authors while studying all the issues of the weekly, it had not been included in L.S. Vygotsky’s bibliography. The authors have supplied extensive comments aimed at reconstructing the social political and cultural context in order to help the reader understand the text. The material reveals peculiarities of young L.S. Vygotsky’s self-determination, his personal attitudes to dramatic social, economic, political and value transformations. The authors pay special attention to stylistic peculiarities of the text, L.S.Vygotsky’s inner dialogue with other people. For instance, by means of analyzing hidden quoting the authors uncover an implicit debate with Andrei Bely and his novel “Petersburg”, demonstrating difference of views on characteristic national traits and behavior of Jews in the revolutionary situation. The authors also point out the opposition between the “outside” and the “inside” observer registered by L.S. Vygotsky which provides a new angle on a number of social, political, cultural, moral and psychological problems which will later be raised in his scientific works. A special commentary deals with the composition of the report, multi-dimensionality of the narrative in which events of the February Revolution are analyzed in the light of everyday events as well as in the historic perspective.
Key words: L.S. Vygotsky, behavioral responses, social political transformations, national cultural traditions, Jewish self-identification, historical experience, cultural historical psychology, psychology of art, artistic technique, stylistic peculiarities, semiotic analysis, inside and outside view.
J. Piaget’s intellectual heritage: A contemporary view
J. Piaget’s scientific heritage is discussed from the angle of contemporary science, his approach to studying cognitive development is compared to the methodology of complex systems. Fundamentality of J. Piaget’s theory consists in harmonious combination of the theoretical and the experimental, the scientific and the humanitarian; in development of genetic epistemology uncovering coherence of biological, psychological, sociological and logical knowledge. The author argues that through the prism of contemporary science J. Piaget’s heritage can be interpreted as a theory of self-organization of the mind in which the principle of balance plays the part of autopoesis, i.e. evolutionary self-renovation of the mind as a combination of stability and variability (assimilation and accommodation). This general principle was applied by J. Piaget to both analysis of ontogenetic development of cognitive structures and evolution of specific sciences and science as a whole. Genetic psychology focused on individual cognition, while epistemological analysis concentrated on structure and dynamics of cognition; genetic epistemology dealt with mechanisms creating systems of human knowledge, genesis of knowledge, levels of knowledge in their interconnection. Constructs of genetic theory (balancing of cognitive structures as a general developmental mechanism, egocentricity, reversibility etc.) and theoretical models built on that foundation were applied by J. Piaget to both human ontogenesis and history of science, which demonstrated structural similarity between the two spheres and the fact that intellectual development stretches from phenomenalism to constructivism, to mastering of the object, development of reflection and critical analysis. In the context of epistemological analysis J. Piaget suggested the term ‘trans-disciplinary’ to characterize a whole interconnected and developing structure of science transcending disciplinary boundaries.
Key words: J. Piaget, intellectual style, method of clinical interview, intellectual development, genetic psychology, genetic epistemology, self-organization, trans-disciplinary.
The Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University (1966–2016)
The history of the Faculty of Psychology of Lomonosov Moscow State University is analyzed on the material of a large number of archives, newsletters of Moscow University, data provided by the Personnel Department, as well as published scientific works of the faculty professors. The author discusses development of psychological knowledge in all the faculties of the university throughout its history with a special emphasis on the contribution of Russian philosophers. Considerable attention is given to connection between the educational process and development of science on one hand and socio-cultural conditions and demands of society on the other. The author dwells on the activities of the department of Psychology within the faculty of Philosophy in the 1940s to the mid-1960s, which led to the opening of the faculty of Psychology. The article also notes the most important events in the faculty’s history, describes the main areas of research, instruction and applied science, emphasizing the significance of the scientific schools created by the faculty.
Key words: Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU), faculty of Psychology, scientific schools, departments and laboratories, instruction and research, priority areas, principles of scientific psychological education, master, specialist, further education.
The role of working memory in the effect of “misses in continued search”
E.S. Gorbunova, E.A. Volchenkova
The paper looks at the role of working memory in the effect of “misses in continued search”. The effect consists in missing the second target stimulus after a successful detection of the first in a visual search task. One of the theories links the effect to the fact that the detected first stimulus exhausts the resource of the working memory and thus blocks the search. In our study we used a standard working memory task which consisted in memorizing one digit (low working memory load) or six digits (high working memory load) with a subsequent report. A visual search task consisted in looking for the letters T among letters L. There might have been one or two Ts or none at all. The subjects’ task in each trial was to identify the Ts while retaining the information about the digital task in the working memory. The experiment revealed meaningful significance of the number of stimuli, but the factors of the working memory load and interference of stimuli were insignificant. Thus the degree of the effect of “misses in continued search” (the difference between percentage of correct answers in the task with two target stimuli and in the task with one target stimulus) turns out to be the same in all trials irrespective of high or low loading of the working memory. Comparison of the findings of the study with other research data allows a conclusion that the effect of misses is either not linked to working memory or is linked to another memory sub-system. The study also revealed a link between the effect of misses and the number of search stimuli, i.e. the perceptive load of the system of information processing.
Key words: visual attention, visual search, working memory, effect of “misses in continued search”.
Eye movement parameters of perception of images of the native country and abroad with respect to attitude to sovereign emigration
A study was conducted to discover cognitive foundations of a person’s attitude to emigration by means of comparing eye movement parameters of perception of symbolic images of the nature and culture of one’s native country and of those abroad in people wishing to emigrate and in people wishing to live in Russia. It was discovered that people wishing to live in Russia looked longer at images of their own country while those wishing to emigrate concentrated on images from abroad. The findings point to implicit differences in emotional value and cognitive significance of elements of social cultural reality being perceived.
Key words: emigration plans, cultural and natural stimuli, fairy tale and mythological images, meaningful experience, oculomotor activity, registration of eye movements.
A system of automatic monitoring of students’ emotional state
M.V. Alyushin, L.V. Kolobaskina, V.M. Aluyshin
One of contemporary approaches to conducting instruction, control and testing, as well as special training sessions on simulators with controlled stress load is based on biological feedback (BFB). Realization of a BFB technology requires adaptation of the teaching or training process to students’ current emotional state. This strategy increases effectiveness of training, thus ensuring the necessary level of acquisition of knowledge and skills. The paper discusses findings of an experimental study of the potential of a system of automatic monitoring. The system involved automatic monitoring of students’ emotional state on the basis of analyzing their current bioparameters with the help of contact and no contact techniques. The current emotional state of each participant was assessed with the help of optic techniques (of the visible and infra-red ranges). Acoustic assessment was performed not individually, but for the whole group in order to detect tiredness or agitation. The experimental sample of the system developed by the authors can be regarded as a prototype of a future automatic system supporting BFB technologies with a wide range of applications.
Key words: risks, prediction of calamities, monitoring, human factor, management, psychological climate, emotional state of personnel.
Diagnosing speech development with the help of “preschool language scales”: a case analysis
M.A. Zhukova, S.A. Kornilov, E. Simmons, E.L. Grigorenko
Language and speech occupy central place in early cognitive development, constituting the basis for reading and learning. International science has produced a number of diagnostic paradigms as well as a conception of developmental psycholinguistics. At the same time there is a lack of diagnostic techniques for assessing development of language and speech in national science. The paper describes procedures for adaptation of the technique Preschool Language Scales 5th Edition; PLS-5 which is used in clinical practice for assessing a child’s language competencies if there is a suspicion of retardedness. The technique has proved its effectiveness for various groups of children, normal and otherwise. The paper contains all modifications introduced by the authors in the process of translating the text into Russian. Effectiveness and reliability of the technique were assessed with respect to a case study of a bilingual child who completed the test in English and then in Russian. The results demonstrated a high degree of compatibility of the data obtained with the help of the two versions of the technique. On the whole the results demonstrate that the Russian language version of the technique can be used as a reliable and valid instrument of diagnosing speech development in monolingual and bilingual children. We expect that application of the technique to large numbers of Russian-speaking children will help to improve its psychometric parameters and discover norms to be used in diagnostics.
Key words: psycholinguistics, language and speech, grammar, vocabulary, bilingualism, cross-linguistic assessment.