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Understanding the Unthinkable
The problem of understanding of the unthinkable, which is new
for Russian psychological science, is formulated in the article.
The semantics of the concept of “the unthinkable” is analyzed.
It is shown that cognitive components of the phenomenon can
be reduced either to the improbable, impossible, hard to imagine, or extraordinary, exceptional in degree of manifestation.
The existential meaning of “the unthinkable” is connected
with the acceptance or rejection of moral and social norms of
human behavior in society, with the unacceptability of situations that are understood by most people as unthinkable. The
unthinkable (holocaust, terrorist attacks, evil) is generated as a
result of attempts to comprehend and understand an existence
that is absolutely inconceivable. Unthinking is a consequence
of the discrepancy between the subject’s existential experience
and the rational schemes of reasoning, templates, and frames
he uses to understand. When people deal with the unthinkable,
first, it is impossible to unambiguously identify the causes and
consequences of events and phenomena: they are determined
in a random way for the understanding subject; second, events
and phenomena that are irrational in their essence and that
people try to understand using rational cognitive modes of reasoning turn out to be unthinkable.
Keywords: understanding, determination, polydetermination, necessary, possible, plausible, impossible.
To basic programs of cultural-activity psychology: activity metodology and metodology of consciousness
Methodological analysis of two lines of cultural-activity approach is described: the activity methodology presented by the works of A.N. Leontiev, and the methodology of consciousness of L.S. Vygotsky. Both the common bases of these methodologies and their differences are analyzed. The following is shown: the both lines are based on the two key methodological theses, starting from the criticism of the classical psycho logy of consciousness. First: the phenomenon isn’t equal to its being, therefore psychology as a science must study the being hidden behind the phenomenon. Hidden means that being is inaccessible for direct introspective description, but requires special experimental and analytical procedures for its reconstruction. Second: research should go beyond the limitations of the self-contained consciousness, to the system of life relationships, and search for his objective and primary forms of existence there. Based on these principles, activity methodology focused on the problem of the subject of psychology and on the substantiation of its objective nature. This allowed to apply the methods of classical science based on the position of an external observer to his research. In the methodology of consciousness, the emphasis was placed on the development of the method for the study of consciousness, which would satisfy the requirements not only of scientific character, but also of practical applicability. The activity methodology was developed in the ontological system “person – life world”, putting in the first the category of activity. The methodology of consciousness was developed in the dialogical system “person for himself – the Other”, based on the category of consciousness. As a result, two different, but complementary programs for the construction of psychology were obtained. One of them relates to the implementation of the natural science research model, and the second is to the humanitarian model. The article shows the difference in content between these programs according to the main methodological categories: ontological system, ideal object, subject, method, principles of mediation and development.
Key words: cultural-activity approach, methodology of consciousness, activity methodology, principle of mediation, principle of development, method of productive amplification of consciousness.
From personality development to the social evolution: C.G. Jung and N.O. Lossky on the prospects of humankind
The author of the article compares views of the founder of analytical psychology C.G. Jung and the representative of Russian religious philosophy, the creator of a system of hierarchical personalism, intuitionist N.O. Lossky regarding structure and dynamics of the psyche, personality development, as well as possible ways of co-evolution of a personality and society. The first part deals with a similarity of such key concepts of analytical psychology and hierarchical personalism as autonomous complex and substantival agent respectively. The author notes that one of sources of this similarity is Leibniz’s metaphysics, primarily his doctrine of monads. In addition, the author points out a closeness of ideas of Jung and Lossky about development of personality through overcoming of egoism, as well as about psychogenesis of schizophrenia. In the second part, the author compares Jung’s and Lossky’s views about possible ways of co-evolution of society through the self-development of each individual. He argues that according to both of thinkers the co-evolution of personality and society is not a matter of economics, politics or law, but of religion, its symbols and values. In this regard, one can trace an influence of Russian religious philosophy on Jung’s social and philosophical ideas through the ideas of B.P. Vysheslavtsev. In addition, the second part contains an explication of conditions and principles of the co-evolution of individual and society, the main of which, according to Jung and Lossky, are recognition of the highest value of personality, freedom and the right to self-improvement in unique individual trajectory. In conclusion, the author considers social consequences of implementation of the scenarios of co-evolution of personality and society proposed by Jung and Lossky. The author points out that these scenarios are aimed at creating conditions under which the emergence and functioning of a mass society, which suppresses creative and religious principle in individuals, becomes impossible. It is also noted that the path of co-evolution proposed by Jung, the so-called Self-knowledge, is rather introverted, while Lossky’s position can be characterized largely as extraverted.
Key words: C.G. Jung, N.O. Lossky, analytical psychology, hierarchical personalism, of co-evolution of personality and society, mass society, Kingdom of God.
The functioning of adolescents’ imagination in reading paper and E-texts
Granik G.G., Borisenko N.A., Mironova K.V., Shishkova S.V.
The article presents a comparative study of identifying the
level of reconstructive imagination functioning in today’s
schoolchildren aged 11–14 when reading paper and E-texts.
The following questions were raised: when does this type of
imagination work more effectively – during digital reading
or paper reading? is there an age dynamics in the level of its
development? To achieve the set goals, the authors developed
diagnostic tools, selected two key evaluation criteria: the adequacy of the recreated picture to the original text and its completeness (details). It was assumed that modern teenagers’ reconstructive imagination work worse in the process of reading
on screen than when reading on paper. To test this hypothesis,
a pilot experiment with a balanced design was carried out. The
total sample consisted of 268 students in grades V–VIII from
general education schools in the Moscow region. As shown by
the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained data, contrary to hypothesis, in this sample there were no significant differences in the levels of reconstructive imagination
functioning when reading from different media. Although
there was a significant increase in the level of its development
from grade V to grade VIII; however, under the conditions of
traditional secondary school education, this positive dynamics is not strong enough.
Key words: reconstructive imagination, teenagers, screen reading, paper reading.
Diagnosis of fluid intelligence and its relationship to other cognitive abilities in junior school age
Alekseeva O.S., Rzhanova I.E., Britova V.S., Nikolaeva A.Yu., Burdukova Yu.A.
The article presents the results of the study of fluid intelligence using different diagnostic techniques. Fluid intelligence is a complex cognitive characteristic that can be defined as the ability to quickly and effectively find solutions to new unfamiliar problems without relying on past experience. At the moment, there is debate about the place of fluid intelligence among other cognitive characteristics. A number of studies have shown the links between fluid intelligence and working memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Fluid intelligence may be a predictor of crystallized intelligence and learning ability. There are practically no studies of fluid intelligence in the Russian population. The aim of this work was to investigate fluid intelligence, methods of its diagnosis and its place in the structure of cognitive characteristics in a sample of Russian children. The study involved 55 school-age children (M = 9.6 years, SD = 0.82 years). The methods used were the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC–V and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children KABC–II. Both tests include fluid intelligence scales and scales that assess other cognitive abilities: short-term and long-term memory, working memory, visual-spatial ability, and information processing speed. It was found that, despite the fact that the tasks for the diagnosis of fluid intelligence in both tests differ in form and content and are weakly correlated with each other, nevertheless, upon factorization, they constitute one factor of fluid intelligence. Analysis of the relationship between fluid intelligence and different types of memory (short-term, long-term working memory) revealed that fluid intelligence is associated only with working memory. It has also been shown that fluid intelligence is a predictor of verbal and visual-spatial abilities.
Key words: fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, working memory, spatial ability.
The impact of the digital environment and additional education on the intellectual and creative abilities of schoolchildren
Stepanov S.Yu., Ryabova I.V., Gavrilova E.V.
The article describes the study of the influence of the digital environment and various gadgets, as well as additional education on the intellectual and creative abilities of children. The life activity of the modern generation of schoolchildren takes place in the conditions of global digitalization, which determines the relevance of studying its impact on the processes and results of the mental development of children of the XXI century. To date, there is a fairly large number of foreign and domestic studies on how the use of digital technologies affects the educational activities of schoolchildren. However, the problems of their influence on the intellectual and creative abilities of children are less studied. Since the available works note, among other things, the negative impact of gadgets on the mental development of the younger generation, the search for educational tools that could compensate or, even better, counteract the negative effects of digitalization has become urgent. They can serve as additional education, in the field of which there are psychological and pedagogical resources to stimulate the processes of creative and intellectual development of children. The diagnostic and questionnaire methods described in the article allowed us to establish that today’s teenagers are characterized by the use of digital technologies either for entertainment or for productive purposes. Correlation and factor analysis showed that those children who prefer the entertainment capabilities of gadgets during their leisure time, show a lower level of intellectual and creative development. Those who use gadgets for productive activities during their leisure time, while engaging in additional education, demonstrate a higher level of intellectual and creative development.
Key words: intellectual and creative abilities, digital environment, gadgets, schoolchildren, additional education, development.
The role of emotional intelligence in psychological well-being and coping with stress
Sergienko E.A., Khlevnaya E.A., Kiseleva T.S., Nikitina A.À., Osipenko E.I.
The article presents a research to determine the role of emotional intelligence in a person’s psychological well-being: it analyzes the relationship between indicators of emotional intelligence and various aspects of psychological well-being, as well as ways of coping with stress. There is also an analysis of foreign and domestic research on this topic. The sample of empirical research was made up of 243 respondents aged 18 to 67 years (182 women and 61 men, average age 36.1 years). The following methods were used as psychodiagnostic tools: “Emotional Intelligence Test” (EIT) developed under the guidance of E.A. Sergienko, “Ryffs Scales of Psychological Well-being” (SPB) by Ñ. Ryff in the modification of T.D. Shevelenkova and P.P. Fesenko, “Ñoping Inventory for Stressful Situations” in the adaptation of T.A. Kryukova. The results of the study showed that emotional intelligence is one of the significant life resources of a person, acts as a predictor of psychological well-being of a person, and also predetermines the choice of more effective coping strategies in stress situations. The peculiarities of emotional intelligence connection and studied parameters in different age groups (up to 35 years old and from 35 years and older) were also revealed.
Key words: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence test (EIT), ability model, psychological well-being, coping strategy.
Socio-psychological conceptualization of phenomenon of internet memes
Gorbatov D.S., Baichik A.V.
Internet memes are considered in the article as a new kind of informal mass communication. The authors substantiates the admissibility of determining their essence based on the use of three basic categories (phrases, images and their combinations) and three distinctive criteria (creation by means of computer technologies, distribution mainly on the Internet, and actualization of emotional attitude to objects of the external or internal world). Two common methodological errors of researchers of network creativity products are described: the tendency to consider Internet memes by themselves, in artificial isolation from other phenomena, and the trend of endowing Internet memes as a whole with the characteristics of their particular varieties. The typology of Internet memes is clarified, based on the use of parameters of the form of presentation to the audience, subjective ideas about authorship, subject matter and modality of emotional attitude to the received materials. It is proposed to revise the existing lists of social functions of Internet memes based on their belonging to informal mass communications. At the same time, the functions common to the manifestations of the phenomenon (expressive, stereo-typing, self-presentation, relaxing) and specific, additional, implemented in certain thematic varieties of Internet memes are distinguished. In particular, for those related to political issues, this is primarily a manipulative function, for news – informational, for those used in education – didactic, for marketing – voluntary, for those spreading in the context of social conflicts – identifying, for reflecting feelings of personal distress creators – therapeutic and so on. The article argues that further study of Internet memes in the paradigm of informal mass communications will create prerequisites not only for monitoring public opinion, but also help in countering content aimed at whipping up social discord and tension.
Key words: memes, Internet memes, informal mass communications, features of Internet memes, typology of Internet memes, social functions of Internet memes.
“Mythological” thinking and thinking of a child: crossing parallels
This paper studies the similarity between the child’s thinking
and “mythological” thinking, a topic important for various
subfields of psychology and social anthropology. The author
considers the approaches of Jean Piaget and Heinz Werner
and outlines the special features of child’s thinking according to their viewpoints. This research defines the features of
the child’s perception of the world that can explain animism,
magic, and egocentrism of children’s thinking and its physiognomic character. The author discusses in depth the differences
between the concepts (or “pre-concepts”) of children’s speech
and the concepts that are the basis of “mythological” thinking. The conceptual apparatus is determined by the cultural
practices and the range of tasks that need to be achieved, and
those two are very special for each culture. In contrast to the
thinking of a child, “mythological” thinking relies on a vast
experience and a well-established complex worldview system.
Its conceptual apparatus focuses on the spheres of life that are
most important for society. Although the systems of concepts
in traditional cultures are polyvalent, they are not random and
rather conventional. These systems are assimilated by all carriers of culture and passed from generation to generation.
Keywords: child’s thinking, mythological thinking, animism, egocentrism, physiognomic perception, synesthesia, ontogenesis, concept formation, alternative ways of cognition/ thinking.
S.L. Rubinstein and the neo-Kantian school of thought
The pages of the national history of psychology of the 20th century often contain gaps, which are due to incomplete or inaccessible sources as well as to ideological distortions of perception and interpretation of the events of the epoch of totalitarianism. Historical-psychological reconstructions, inspired these days by archival and revisionist turns, as well as by the methodology of latent change, offer other interpretative models, on the one hand, overcoming established mythologems, and on the other, revealing a complex, contradictory and ambiguous picture of the development of socio-humanitarian knowledge of the first half of the 20th century. Under the influence of globalization and transnational research projects, contemporary Russian historiography in one way or another updates its methodological tools, turns to polyparadigmatics and transdisciplinarity, and shifts from linear interpretative schemes to constructions that include marginal and non-obvious narratives and discourses along with canonical ones. In the light of the new interpretive model, which takes into account historio-graphical materials of related sciences as well as hidden currents of Soviet culture, three methodological milestones are singled out for analysis in S.L. Rubinstein’s intellectual biography: neo-Kantian, Marxist, and anthropological (existential) periods of scientific work. It is emphasized that Soviet historiography left almost no doubts concerning the Marxist foundations of S.L. Rubinstein’s subjectivå-activity approach, but other models of interpretation not only immerse Russian psychology in the context of epistemological twists and turns in socio-humanitarian knowledge of the 20th century, but also problematize the established ideas and call them into question. Among such problematizations is a comprehension of the neo-Kantian and Marxist premises of S.L. Rubinstein’s doctrine. It is stated that the principle of creative activity, the notion of self-development and individuation of the subject, the problem of ethics and values as internal guidelines of human development represent latent neo-Kantianism in the intellectual biography of the scientist.
Key words: methodology, historiography, neo-Kantianism, ethics, subject, principle of creative activity.
New oculomotor methods for assessing cognitive load
The paper is devoted to the description of new eye gaze indices of cognitive load. Often, typical eye movement measures like mean fixation duration of cognitive load exhibit low validity, especially in field settings. New approaches are related, first, to the new processing methods of standard measures – fixation durations and saccadic features. For instance, the author shows the utility of ex-gaussian modelling of fixation duration distribution to assess the proportion of “cognitive” fixations which increases under load. He also considers new saccadic measures like saccadic velocity and micro-saccades rate. Second, there are new approaches of complex, multidimensional nature – time series analysis, recurrence plots, and fractal analysis. Eye movements patterns are presented via nearest neighbor method and visual entropy method. Eye movements dynamics as a time series can be also analyzed qualitatively using recurrence plots. The author also reports on new fractal measures to study eye movements dynamics under cognitive load. A repeating theme is the elucidation of chaos/regularity and underlying complexity of eye movements and cognitive processes. New methods of complex eye movements analysis for cognitive load can be used in many areas of psychology.
Key words: eye gaze, cognitive load, fixation duration, saccadic velocity, time series, recurrence analysis, fractals.
Russian adaptation of the TEIQue-SF (Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire – Short Form) by K. Petrides and A. Furnham
Pankratova A.A., Kornienko D.S., Fetisova A.V.
K. Petrides and A. Furnham introduced a novel construct of Trait Emotional Intelligence (EI) and developed the TEIQue for its assessment. The model of EI proposed by them belongs to the mixed models because it includes (1) cognitive abilities: understanding, and management of one’s own and others’ emotions, (2) personality traits: happiness, optimism, self-esteem, assertiveness etc., (3) competencies related to the practical application of EI: relationship skills and social competence. This paper presents an adaptation of the TEIQue-SF (Short Form) in the Russian sample (N = 544) and the analysis of individual differences in trait EI. Factor analysis showed that the Russian version of the TEIQue-SF has a two-factor structure which corresponds to the practical application of EI by Petrides and Furnham. Internal consistency of the TEIQue-SF and its scales Relationship skillsand Social competenceis high (Cronbach’s alphas around 0.8–0.9). Concerning convergent validity, the TEIQue-SF (self-reported mixed EI) correlates positively with the EmIn questionnaire by D.V. Lyusin (self-reported ability EI) (r= 0.69) and has the same pattern of correlations with Big Five as the original version of the TEIQue. Concerning divergent validity, trait EI is not associated with academic achievements (state exams scores in mathematics and Russian). Concerning predictive validity, trait EI correlates positively with satisfaction with life (r= 0.48), positive affect (r= 0.52) and correlates negatively with negative affect (r= –0.46), state (r= –0.68), and trait (r= –0.75) anxiety. The trait EI scores are higher in men in comparison with women (d= 0.26) and the trait EI increases slightly with age both for men and women (r= 0.12).
Keywords: emotional intelligence, TEIQue, Big Five, academic achievement, subjective well-being, anxiety.
The development of the “Mechanisms of regulation of pro-social behavior of adults” questionnaire
Kislyakov P.A., Shmeleva Å.À.
The results of the development of the questionnaire aimed at identifying the dominant mechanisms of regulation of prosocial behavior in adults are presented. A review of Russian and foreign psychodiagnostic methods aimed at studying the axiological, motivational, dynamic and content characteristics of pro-social behavior is given. The theoretical model of the developed questionnaire is based on five mechanisms of regulation of pro-social behavior in adolescence and adulthood: social identification (“I belong”), social adaptation (“I accept”), inter-personal attraction (“I feel”), self-actualization (“I develop”), psychological protection (“I preserve”). Five corresponding scales are highlighted. The five-factor structure of the questionnaire was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. The study was carried out on a sample of 535 people aged 17 to 60 years, the average age was 32.7 years (33% – men, 67% – women); 56,3% had experience of volunteering. Verification of the convergent validity of the questionnaire was carried out using the following methods: “Moral Foundations Questionnaire” – MFQ-32 (J. Haidt et al., in the Russian-language adaptation of O.A. Sychev et al.), “Portrait Value Questionnaire” – PVQ-21 (Sh. Schwartz, in the Russian-language adaptation of E. Davydova et al.). A number of scales revealed gender and age differences, as well as differences depending on the availability of volunteer experience. The mechanisms of interpersonal attraction and self-actualization were dominant. The questionnaire has sufficient consistency, reliability, and convergent validity. The questionnaire can be used for research purposes.
Keywords: pro-social behavior, psychological mechanisms, the development of the questionnaire.
Primary approbation of “Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-2-SMPS – 2” on Russian sample
Yakushin A.A., Leonov S.V., Peshin N.L., Aslanova M.S.
Today many domestic and foreign researchers are engaged in the study of perfectionism, which considers both positive and negative manifestations of it and its impact on the life of people from various professional fields. The relevance of this work is due to the fact that, despite the presence of many different studies of the psychological characteristics of people who are prone to perfectionism, at the moment in the field of Russian sports there is no diagnostic tool necessary to study perfectionism directly in athletes. The main goal of the work was to test the method “Mult idimensional Perfectionism Scale-2-SMPS – 2”, developed by Canadian researchers J. Dunn and J. Gotwals in 2009. In addition, our research was aimed at studying the following psychological characteristics of athletes who are prone to perfectionism: personal anxiety, sports motivation and self-efficacy. The Russian-language version of the methodology “Multidimensional scale of perfectionism in Sports” was tested and validated on a sample of 93 Russian athletes engaged in various sports, aged from 16 to 28 years. The connections of perfectionism with the psychological characteristics of athletes were studied. It is revealed that positive manifestations of perfectionism, which characterize the desire for high personal standards, are associated with the internal motivation of athletes, and negative – with external sports motivation and orientation to others. In addition, the perfectionism of athletes has a direct connection with the personal anxiety of athletes. The relationship between perfectionism and self-efficacy of athletes was not revealed. The main result of the work: for the first time in Russian psychology, a full-fledged method for measuring perfectionism in athletes is presented, which demonstrates a high degree of structural validity, as a result of which it can be used to solve diagnostic problems.
Keywords: sport psychology, perfectionism, personality.